State of the Nation 2008

4. Digest of Key Indicators

4.3 Canada's Talent Indicators

People play a critical role in a nation's innovation system because they are the creators and users of new knowledge. The process of innovation is becoming increasingly complex, with more players and requirements for collaboration. The spectrum of skills and competencies needed is higher, requiring advanced levels of education and wider experience. An innovating economy employs people who:

  • have leading-edge research skills;
  • have complex problem solving skills;
  • are committed to lifelong training and updating of skills;
  • know how to put new technology to work;
  • exhibit leadership and entrepreneurship;
  • bring products, processes and services to markets; and
  • can engage and cooperate at an international level.

Aside from demanding innovative products, consumers are also innovators. The Internet has provided a powerful platform for users to channel their skills, experiences, and knowledge with each other and innovating companies.

Canada's workforce is among the best educated in the world and provides us with a competitive advantage on which we can build. A declining birth rate and aging population will translate into fewer people in the workforce. A critical concern is maintaining and increasing the number of highly educated people in the workforce. Workers whose skills are upgraded, new graduates and immigrants who bring international expertise and skills with them will all contribute to our pool of talent.

Canada's 15-Year-Olds on Science, Math and Reading

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a collaborative effort among OECD countries, and 57 countries participated in the 2006 assessment. PISA looks at the ability of 15-year-old students to apply knowledge and skills in key subject areas, and to analyze, reason and communicate effectively as they examine, interpret and solve problems. PISA is run once every three years, and in each year there is a special focus on one of the three subject areas — reading, mathematics and science. In 2006, science was the focus of the assessment, while reading and numeracy were also assessed. More specifically, students were tested on their ability to recognize scientific questions, use evidence, draw scientific conclusions and communicate these conclusions.

PISA results shown in Figure 19, illustrate that Canada's 15-year-olds score well compared to their international counterparts in science, ranking third with only Finland and Hong Kong-China scoring better. In mathematics, Canadian students continued to perform well but were outperformed by students in Chinese Taipei, Finland, Hong Kong-China, Korea, Netherlands and Switzerland. In reading, Canadian 15-year-old students maintained their fourth place ranking, the same level they achieved in PISA 2003; but were outperformed by Finland, Hong Kong and Korea.90 This contrasts with previous assessments where Canada was only outperformed by one other country.

Continuing Education and Adult Knowledge and Skills

Technology often changes faster than school curriculum. Therefore, along with investing in new machinery and equipment, it is crucial that employers train their employees in how to use new technologies. The Conference Board of Canada found that Canada still performs relatively poorly in formal workplace training, investing considerably less than the U.S. and many European countries. Moreover, real per capita investment in training is actually falling. In 1996, the investment per employee was $842, while in 2006 it was only $699.91

The same report also finds that those with higher levels of education tend to participate in formal workplace training more than those without a secondary school diploma. This implies "that the Canadian workplace training tends to amplify differences in skills as opposed to compensating for these differences. Given the fact that skills atrophy over time, the lack of a solid lifelong learning approach to skills building may be exacerbating Canada's continuing adult literacy problem." 92

Canadian Institutes of Health Research Synapse Program Inspires Next Generation of Health Researchers

Mentor Lisa Turchet helps students extract Deoxyribonucleic acid at a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Synapse workshop in Iqaluit, Nunavut
Mentor Lisa Turchet helps students extract DNA at a CIHR Synapse workshop in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is bridging the gap between health researchers and Canadian youth through its Synapse program. Between July 2007 and June 2008, Synapse mentors devoted over 13 000 hours of their time inspiring 55 000 Canadian students to be interested in science and health research.

Synapse mentors receive training in youth outreach and how to best communicate their passion for research to high school students. Synapse mentorship opportunities include summer science camps, virtual mentorship connections, science fairs, and lab-mentorship programs.

"I am thrilled to hear that students had a great time learning about my passion in life and at the same time enjoyed having their hands extract DNA from bananas," says Kusala M. Jayasuriya, a neuroscience graduate student at the Hotchkiss Brain Institute Health Research Centre who is studying molecular and genetic techniques. "I find this is a win-win situation. A mentor learns and benefits simply by being a mentor as much as the students learn and benefit from a mentor. I hope that I may inspire at least one budding mind to pursue a career in one of the most exciting fields in health research."

"The Synapse mentorship program gave me everything I had hoped for and more," says Samanta Krishnapillai, a grade 11 high school student at Middlefield Collegiate Institute in Markham, Ontario. "I also had the opportunity to network with many different people who worked with my mentor and I learned from their experiences as well."

The International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey tracks the knowledge and skills of 16-65 year old Canadians in prose and document literacy, numeracy and problem solving. More than 23 000 Canadians were tested in 2003. The survey found little improvement in the overall literacy of adult Canadians since they were assessed in 1994. Two in five adults scored below the desired thresholds for coping with skill demands of a knowledge society.93

Share of the Population with a Tertiary Education

For a nation to be able to incorporate productivity-enhancing innovations into its economy, it must have access to skilled people. An independent report commissioned by the U.K. government in 2006 stated, "Higher levels of skills drive innovation, facilitate investment and improve leadership and management. For innovation to be effectively implemented, businesses must be able to draw on a flexible, skilled workforce." 94 Just as universities produce the knowledge workers, which are crucial to innovation, colleges produce workers that have the skills and knowledge to flexibly adapt to today's fast-paced economic climate, implement the latest technologies in their workplace, and develop the kind of bottom-up innovation in their daily routines that drives productivity growth.

The share of the population with a tertiary education95 is regarded as an indicator of a nation's supply of advanced skills. Almost all OECD countries have seen a rise in the education levels of their citizens over the past two decades. Canada has experienced the second largest increase in tertiary attainment, while Korea had the largest increase.

Figure 20 shows that among comparable countries, Canada ranks first in the educational attainment of its labour force. In 2006, 47 percent of Canada's working age population96 attained a tertiary-level education, which is a significant rise from almost a decade ago when this percentage was 39 percent. Half of Canada's high percentage rests on the college component. This college to university ratio has remained relatively stable since 1999. In other leading OECD countries the college component is much smaller. Looking at just the university component of tertiary attainment97 Canada's rank falls to sixth place, behind the U.S., Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark and Iceland.

Countries define college and universities in different ways. In Canada, the college component includes trade and vocational programs.

Between 1998 and 2005, graduates from bachelor and master's programmes have been increasing,98, 99 while the number of PhD degrees awarded has remained stable. When looking at fields of study at all levels of education, consecutive increases have been seen in business, management and public administration, representing 21 percent of all graduates in Canada. The social and behavioural sciences and law fields account for 20 percent, and humanities, 11 percent of all graduates.100

Nova Scotia Community College's Applied Geomatics Research Group sparks collaboration with local companies

The Applied Geomatics Research Group (AGRG) at the Nova Scotia Community College (NSCC) is one recipient of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council's College and Community Innovation (CCI) Program. The Program received $48 million in Budget 2007 to increase innovation by boosting the capacity of Canadian colleges to work with local companies, especially small- and medium-sized enterprises. The AGRG is integrating geomatics and environmental technologies for landscape assessment, monitoring and restoration. The Group has been working with municipalities and the regional development agency to establish a Business Incubation Centre at its campus in the Annapolis Valley. Its business incubation process has involved five new companies since 2007.

Canada, however, does not appear to reward this higher education, as the earnings advantage from completing tertiary education is low compared to other countries. Canada ranks the eighth lowest in the OECD in the earnings advantage of tertiary level graduates over persons with an upper secondary qualification.101 Part of the explanation for this, and for the relatively high share of the Canadian college education, may be explained by the inclusion of short vocational programs in Canadian post-secondary education statistics that are reported by the OECD. The OECD is currently assessing differences in how member countries report this indicator.102

Number of Science and Engineering Degrees

The long-term growth of Canada's innovation system requires constant growth in the number of workers possessing science and engineering (S&E) skills. Over the past 15 years, the vast majority of OECD countries have experienced a large increase in the number of students in S&T fields.103 However, the proportion of S&T students as a percentage of all new degrees has steadily decreased during the same period in OECD countries.

In 2005, 20 percent of new degrees were awarded in S&E, which places Canada 21st among OECD countries (Figure 21). This percentage has remained somewhat stable since 1998. Despite this low ranking, however, Canada does perform better than its largest trading partner, the U.S., whose proportion is about 16 percent.

To address the growing international demand and concern for scientific talent, an OECD working group examined the declining interest in S&T studies.104 The OECD points out that students' choices are mostly determined by their image of S&T professions, the content of S&T curricula and the quality of teaching. Accurate knowledge about S&T professions and career prospects are key elements of orientation, but students lack complete information.

Booming Video Game Industry Benefits from University-Business Collaboration

In 2005 the University of Sherbrooke, the Cégep de Matane and international video gaming company Ubisoft announced the creation of the Ubisoft Campus in Montréal. This institution offers courses that lead to accredited degrees in fields related to video game development, and will teach students a complete range of skills needed by businesses in Montréal's booming game industry and abroad, including game design, modelling and 3-D animation. This innovative approach to university-business collaboration is just one of the ways in which Canadian institutions are collaborating with industry to provide their students with the skills that are in high demand.

Number of Business Degrees

Good management is a significant driver of demand in an effective innovation system. The Institute for Competitiveness and Prosperity illustrates the importance of management skills in a study that finds that although science and engineering graduates are dominant founders of successful high technology firms, these graduates become less important as firms mature. As companies mature, different sets of skills may be required to keep them growing. It appears that the transition towards leadership with more diverse backgrounds (as opposed to technological ones) is more pronounced in the U.S. Research indicates that a key challenge for growing innovative firms in Canada is access to management talent.

Canada has far fewer degrees in business both at the undergraduate and graduate level than the U.S. (Figure 22). Overall, managers in Canada generally have lower educational attainment than those in the U.S., and CEOs of our largest companies tend to have less formal business education at the graduate level.105

The Financial Times does a yearly world ranking of Master of Business Administration (MBA) schools, and according to the 2008 ranking, Canada has six MBA schools in the top 100, which is an increase from four in 2000. While the number of Canadian MBA schools in the top 100 has increased, their rankings have continued to decrease since 2004 (Figure 23).

Managers with International Work Experience

Research suggests that the ability of a CEO to operate at a global level is greatly enhanced by having prior international work experience. Survey results drawn from the CEOs of the 700 largest U.S. companies find that from 2003 to 2004, there was a 9 percent increase in the number of CEOs with international experience, amounting to a total of 30 percent.106

A recent study commissioned by Russell Reynolds Associates,107 examined how the globalization of the Canadian economy influenced the competencies sought in CEOs, succession planning and the professional development of the senior executives of Canada's largest firms. They found that over the past 20 years, Canada's largest companies have become significantly more global. The share of Canadian CEOs with international work experience grew from 25 percent in 1987 to 37 percent in 2007. However, despite the increase in Canadian CEOs with international work experience, the rate of the increase has slowed.108

Number of Doctoral Degrees

The importance of PhD training in the global knowledge-based economy is reflected in the increasing number of people acquiring PhDs worldwide. From 1996 to 2006, the number of working-age (25-64 years old) Canadians with earned PhDs grew from 90 945 to 142 180.109 Much of this growth in PhD holders in Canada has come through immigration, and despite the growth in PhD holders as a share of the population, Canada ranks 20th in the number of new PhD graduates per million population in the OECD, as shown in Figure 24.

The low graduation rates of PhDs in Canada may be a reflection of the low business demand for PhDs relative to the U.S. In 2000, the share of PhDs in full-time, full-year employment was lower in Canada than in the U.S. (0.8 percent versus 1.1 percent). Between 2001 and 2006, the number of adults aged 25-64 who held a doctoral degree in Canada increased by 30 percent.110

Internships and Co-Ops

Just as it is important to build up Canada's stock of skilled and talented people, it is equally important to provide them with opportunities to learn and apply their skills. As the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada states, internships and co-ops "enhance employment opportunities for graduates, provide the labour market with the essential skills and competencies it requires, and improve private sector receptor capacity for the results of university research." 111

Although data on internships and co-ops are not well established, some universities and firms are beginning to track these data. According to the Canadian Association for Co-operative Education, there were 80 000 co-op students in Canada in 2006, which is an increase from about 53 000 a decade ago. Of the 80 000 co-op students, almost 74 percent are in Ontario (58 percent) and British Columbia (16 percent).112 Many are placed within the private sector.

Researchers in the Workforce

Countries with strong high-technology sectors, such as Finland, Japan and Sweden, have among the highest densities of researchers. As Figure 25 shows, Canada places in the lower middle of the pack in the total R&D personnel per thousand people employed. Like most other OECD countries, the majority of Canada's researchers are in the business sector, followed by the higher education sector. In 2005, the business sector provided employment to 64 percent of all researchers in Canada. This share has been increasing since 1996, as highly skilled individuals become more integral to a business's innovation process.113

Internationally Recognized Distinguished Awards

Another important indicator of Canada's science, technology and innovation performance is the degree to which Canada receives and gives internationally recognized distinguished awards.114 In the 1960s, Canadians received 20.3 percent of all awards, a figure that dipped to 11 percent in the 1980s, and has risen back to 20 percent since 2001.115 Canadians have been most frequently recognized in the fields of the environment (2nd in the world after the U.S.), medicine and technology (3rd in the world after the U.S. and the U.K.).

In terms of distinguished science awards, however, Canada ranks lower (12th in the world, tied with Israel). During the period of 1941 to 2008, Canada has received 19 awards in science, in contrast with other countries such as the U.S. (1403), U.K. (222), France (91), Germany (75) and Australia (42). Canada last received a Nobel Prize in science in 1994, when Bertram Brockhouse won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the development of neutron spectroscopy. In 2008, Anthony Pawson, a professor of medical genetics and microbiology at the University of Toronto, was awarded a Kyoto Prize in the basic sciences category for his work on signal transduction, or how cells use chemical signals to regulate one another's behaviour.

Finally, compared to their international (and particularly to their U.S. counterparts), Canadian corporations sponsor very few internationally recognized distinguished awards.116 Canada confers only two distinguished international awards117 in the area of science and innovation: the Canada Gairdner International Award for medical research, which is open to candidates outside Canada, and the Manning Innovation Award, which is restricted to residents of Canada. The Canada Gairdner Foundation Award is recognized as one of the world's most prestigious awards in biomedical science. The Manning Innovation Award has, since 1982, been recognizing those who develop and successfully market a new concept, process or procedure in Canada.118 The International Congress of Distinguished Awards notes that throughout the world (especially in the U.S., Japan, Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland) "national and international corporations have seen it as part of their role in the world to sponsor awards and prizes that become synonymous with their corporate names and logos." 119

Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine is an emerging field that aims to "repair, replace, and/or regenerate" damaged tissues and organs by stimulating previously irreparable organs into healing themselves. It holds the potential to treat previously chronic diseases and conditions including Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, heart disease, renal failure, osteoporosis and spinal cord injuries.

Since the 1960s, Canadian medical researchers have been at the forefront of regenerative medicine. James Edgar Till and Ernest Armstrong McCulloch were the first researchers to identify the haematopoietic stem cell. Today, several of the world's leading stem cell biologists are located in Canada including Freda Miller who identified stem cells in the skin, Derek van der Kooy who discovered stem cells in the retina, and Sam Weiss, who identified stem cells in the brain. Expertise in stem cell biology is complemented by leadership in tissue engineering/biomaterials. Michael Sefton was awarded the Killam Prize in 2008 for his outstanding career achievement in tissue engineering.

Attracting International Talent

Canada has historically been able to attract the labour supply it needs through immigration, but this is changing. Skilled immigrants and top-ranked international students are now highly sought after by many countries, including those not previously considered as destination nations. Several countries have streamlined their immigration policies and have instituted incentives to attract and retain international students.

Dr. Samuel Weiss, PhD, Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta

Dr. Samuel Weiss
Photo: Trudee Lee Photography

Sparking interest and inspiring students to explore education and careers in science-related fields is key to growing Canada's base of knowledge workers.

Dr. Samuel Weiss, recipient of the 2008 Gairdner International Award for his discovery of adult neural stem cells in the mammalian brain and its importance in nerve cell generation, recalls how a course on neurochemistry he took as an undergraduate biochemistry major inspired his career path.

"The course was lectured/coordinated by two giants — Leonhard Wolfe, who provided the understanding of how prostaglandins regulate central nervous system (CNS) function — and Theodore Sourkes, who was instrumental in identifying dopamine depletion as the key chemical pathology of Parkinson's disease. I was blown away by the course, and what those two professors taught me. From that point on, I became a lifelong sponge for information linking biochemistry and the nervous system."

International Student Enrolment

Figure 26 shows that Canada's market share of the world's international students has remained virtually the same (5 percent in 2000; 5.1 percent in 2006). The U.S. (20 percent) and the U.K. (11.3 percent) have much higher shares, and Australia has seen significant growth over this six-year period, from 5.6 percent in 2000 to 6.3 percent in 2006.120

Canada's relative position in the market share may be partially attributed to its modest promotional activities when compared to the aggressive and strategic promotional activities of the U.S.,121 U.K. and Australia, which are the leading destinations

Figure 27 shows the country of origin of visa students in Canada from various destinations. The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education notes that U.S., U.K. and Australia strategically target students in potentially high-yield countries such as China and India. All three countries have implemented initiatives to facilitate integration of international students, such as changes in the immigration requirements and processes.122

Recent and well-received initiatives by the Canadian government to enable universities to attract and to retain international graduate students and researchers include the changes made to the Post-Graduation Work Permit Program. This program will make it easier for international students who have graduated from an eligible program at a post-secondary institution to gain valuable Canadian work experience. These changes include: extending the duration of the work permit to three years (in some cases); providing the flexibility for new graduates to work in any field; and removing the requirement to have a job offer. Finally, a new immigration category, which facilitates the transition to permanent residence for skilled foreign workers and students who have already proved employable in Canada, has just been created. The Canadian Experience Class immigration stream is expected to grant permanent resident status to 7500 economic immigrants in 2009, a figure that is forecast to rise to 25 000 annually over time.123

While Canada has increased its share of international students over the years, the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE)124 found that only a third of international students graduating from a Canadian university will attempt to stay in Canada. Many students are deterred by inconsistent and confusing policies and practices. Many employers are not aware that they are allowed to hire international students and graduates. The CBIE also found that employers who have hired international graduates sometimes report that current U.S. border policies have blocked some employees from carrying out company business in the U.S.125 Canada is not capitalizing on the immense talent offered by these international students.

The Government of Canada established the Canada Excellence Research Chairs (CERC) Program in September 2008 to help Canadian universities attract and retain the world's top researchers. CERC will award 20 Chair holders and their research teams with up to $10 million over seven years to establish ambitious research programs at Canadian universities. The Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship (Vanier CGS) Program awards 500 Canadian and international doctoral students scholarships valued at up to $50 000 per year. The Canada Research Chairs (CRC) Program, in which the government invests approximately $300 million each year, also serves to attract high-calibre domestic and international talent to Canadian universities. In June 2007, there were 1837 active Canada Research Chairs, with 584 of the Chair holders having been recruited from outside of Canada, of which 269 of these international recruits being expatriated Canadians.

In addition to attracting and retaining international students, Canada must also make the most of the skills of immigrants. Foreign credential recognition is essential to meet the needs of the 21st century economy. Of the 1.2 million immigrants that came to Canada with the intention to work between 1997 and 2007, one-third had professional qualifications, and at least half of these sought work in fields requiring some form of training or formal credential.126 Canada must ensure that internationally trained workers can fully participate in the labour market and in Canadian society.

In 2008, British Columbia devoted additional funds to improving its international credential recognition programs. Saskatchewan also announced a pilot project that will recognize international credentials of immigrants before arriving in Canada. The Government of Canada recently provided $1.2 million in funding for projects to improve foreign credential recognition processes in Canada.127 These projects aim to: improve the dissemination of information; identify the programs and services available in colleges or institutions that prepare immigrant students to integrate into the labour force; investigate issues related to the entry of foreign-trained practitioners; and develop an entry-to-practice examination for competency assessment in specific occupations.

Canada's Innovation Performance Challenge

State of the Nation 2008: Canada's Science, Technology and Innovation System is a fair, balanced picture of the strengths and weaknesses of our performance on a wide range of science, technology and innovation indicators. The picture that emerges from our first report is that, for almost all indicators we track in our first report, Canada is a solid, middle-of-the-road performer. Our strengths in these areas have greatly improved our productivity, our standard of living, and our quality of life. But Canada is not the only country that has recognized the importance of science, technology and innovation to economic and social well-being. Other countries, both developed and emerging, have also made investments and policy changes in science, technology and innovation the centrepiece of their economic strategy, particularly to help them rebound from the current global recession. So, while we have been good, we now need to be great. Changes in technology, in the nature of global competition, in immigration flows, and the knowledge requirements of new jobs demand that we keep pressing forward. Improving our performance and our international rankings in these indicators will require a concerted, coordinated effort by Canadian business, higher education, government and non-profit institutions. It is a challenge we should welcome. We look forward to reporting on our progress in the 2010 State of the Nation Report.


90 Statistics Canada, Measuring up: Canadian Results of the OECD PISA Study, The Performance of Canada's Youth in Science, Reading and Mathematics, 2006 First Results for Canadians Aged 15, 81-590-XIE, 2007.

91 How Canada Performs: A Report Card on Canada, The Conference Board of Canada (June 2007).

92 How Canada Performs: A Report Card on Canada, The Conference Board of Canada (June 2007), p. 92.

93 "International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey," The Daily, Statistics Canada, Wednesday, November 9, 2005.

94 Prosperity for all in the global economy — world class skills, Leitch Review of Skills, December 2006. p. 8.

95 According to the OECD, university education is referred to as tertiary type-A education, including advanced research programs. College education is referred to as tertiary type-B. (OECD Education at a Glance; 2008.)

96 Defined as ages 25 to 64 years old.

97 According to the OECD, university education is referred to as tertiary type-A education, including advanced research programs. College education is referred to as tertiary type-B. (OECD Education at a Glance; 2008.)

98 Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 477-0014, University degrees, diplomas and certificates granted.

99 Momentum: the 2008 report on university research and knowledge mobilization. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (2008).

100 Statistics Canada. University degree, diplomas and certificates awarded, The Daily, February 7, 2008.

101 OECD, Education at a Glance 2008: OECD Briefing Note for Canada (September 2008).

102 AUCC Trends in Higher Education, Vol. 1, Enrolment, p. 22.

103 OECD Global Science Forum, Evolution of Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies Policy Report, May 4, 2006. The study examined the following five areas: life sciences, mathematics and statistics, physical sciences, computing sciences, and engineering.

104 OECD Global Science Forum, Evolution of Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies Policy Report, May 4, 2006.

105 R. Martin and J. Milway, Strengthening management for prosperity, Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity (May 2007).

106 J. Martin, The global CEO: overseas experience is becoming a must on top executives' resumes, BNET, January-February 2004.

107 Russell Reynolds Associates, A World of Experience — The Globalization of Canadian Corporate Leadership: 1987-2007 Study (2008). The study, conducted by researchers at King's University College and the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario examined the international experience of the CEOs of Canada's 100 largest for-profit corporations, whose revenues of more than $718 billion are equal to approximately 55 percent of the country's Gross Domestic Product. The study sample was restricted to companies headquartered in Canada; subsidiaries of foreign corporations were excluded. In order to identify trends over time, the study examined CEO international experience in 1987, 1997 and 2007.

108 Russell Reynolds Associates, A World of Experience — The Globalization of Canadian Corporate Leadership: 1987-2007 Study (2008).

109 AUCC communication, based on Statistics Canada census data for 1996 and 2006.

110 Momentum: the 2008 report on university research and knowledge mobilization. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, p. 116.

111 Momentum: the 2008 report on university research and knowledge mobilization. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.

112 Canadian Association for Co-operative Education (CAFCE) national post-secondary co-operative education database.

113 Statistics Canada, Science Statistics: May 2008 edition, Catalogue no. 88-001-X, vol. 32, no. 1. Analysis by the Council of Canadian Academies, in Business Innovation in Canada, using data from the OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators, and OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2007, shows that there is a strong correlation between business enterprise researchers per 1000 people employed and BERD intensity. Many of the countries with the strongest BERD intensity, such as Finland, Sweden, the United States, Japan, Denmark and South Korea have much higher business enterprise researchers per 1000 people employed ratios than Canada.

114 The International Congress of Distinguished Awards (ICDA) defines these as awards that have a minimum cash award of US$100 000, are presented on a recurring basis, employ a broad-based nomination process, maintain an independent, merit-based evaluation and selection process involving well-qualified jurors, and recognize achievements that are primarily of international importance; and are committed to promoting knowledge and understanding for all people.

115 ICDA's list of internationally distinguished awards available to Canadians includes 171 separate awards in all fields, including humanitarian and peace awards, and awards in the fields of literature, arts, culture, etc.

116 In 2007, Canadian corporations sponsored awards totalling US$80 182, which ranks 10th in the world, but, by way of comparison, Sweden was 9th, with US$222 219 in corporate-sponsored awards.

117 As identified through a series of criteria developed by the ICDA in 1999. These awards are considered as one of the world's most important awards; the award's recipients are "distinguished world laureates"; and the recipient's home institution is the employer of a "distinguished award laureate."

118 Past Manning Award winners of the main $100 000 "Principal Award" include Janusz Pawliszyn (2008) for solid-phase micro extraction (SPME), an environmentally friendly, convenient and efficient technology for collecting and extracting samples for chemical analysis, and Mike Lazaridis and Gary Mousseau (2002) for the development of the BlackBerry.

119 Larry E. Tise, International Congress of Distinguished Awards, Awards Canada 2008: An Analysis of the Participation of Canada and Canadians in the World of Awards, prepared for Industry Canada, June 2008, p. 18.

120 OECD, Education at a Glance, 2008.

121 The intake of foreign students by the traditionally dominant U.S. was affected by the tightening of the conditions of entry for international students in the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2001.

122 The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, OBHE, 2007 as cited by Smita Bhatia, A Comparative Analysis of Canada's Capacity for Supporting International Students and Researchers, 2008.

123 Canada's Immigration Plan For 2009.

124 S. Bond et al., Northern Lights: International Graduates of Canadian Institutions and the National Workforce, Canadian Bureau for International Education (2007).

125 S. Bond et al., Northern Lights: International Graduates of Canadian Institutions and the National Workforce, Canadian Bureau for International Education (2007).

126 Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. "Foreign Credential Recognition and Assessment: an Introduction," Canadian Issues, Spring 2007, p. 3.

127 For more details on these programs, read the Citizenship and Immigration Canada backgrounder, Funding to Improve Foreign Credential Recognition Processes.