State of the Nation 2010


Figure 1: Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development as a Percentage Share of Gross Domestic Product (2006 and 2008)

This vertical bar graph compares gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage share of gross domestic product for 2006 and 2008 in 23 countries. Sweden had the highest gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage share of gross domestic product at 3.75 percent in 2008, followed by Finland at 3.73 percent and Japan at 3.42 percent. Canada was fourteenth at 1.84 percent. The G7 average was 2.23 percent and the country with the lowest gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage share of gross domestic product was Italy at 1.19 percent. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average for 2006 and 2008 was roughly the same for both years at around 2 percent.

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2010.

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Figure 2: Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development as a Percentage Share of Gross Domestic Product, for Selected Countries, 1981 to 2008

This line graph compares gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage share of gross domestic product for 10 countries from 1981 to 2008. The ratios over the past 10 years show mixed trends. Over this period, ratios increased substantially in Japan, China and South Korea. In 2008, Japan had the highest gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage share of gross domestic product at about 3.5 percent, followed by South Korea at about 3.4 percent and the United States at about 2.8 percent. Canada was sixth overall in 2008 at 1.84 percent, but was at 1.22 percent in 1981 and peaked at 2.09 percent in 2001.

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2010.

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Figure 3: Major Flows of Research and Development Funding in Canada, 2009*

This diagram shows major flows of research and development funding in Canada in 2009, including sources of research and development funding and research and development performing sector. Only flows and performers greater than $100 million are presented. Business was by far the largest source of funding at over $14 billion, followed by the federal government at $5.7 billion and higher education at $4.7 billion. The remaining research and development funding came from foreign, provincial government and private non-profit sources. Business was the highest research and development performing sector at over $16 billion, followed by higher education at $10.4 billion, the federal government at $2.7 billion and provincial governments at $369 million.

* – Includes only flows and performers > $100M. Return to text
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 358-0001, August 2010.

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Figure 4: Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development by Performing Sector, 1998 to 2008 (Constant 2002 Dollars)

This line graph compares gross domestic expenditure on research and development by performing sector from 1998 to 2008 in constant 2002 dollars by the federal government, provincial governments, business and higher education. In 2008, business had the highest gross domestic expenditure on research and development at almost $14 billion, followed by higher education at just over $8.5 billion, the federal government at $2 billion and provincial governments at just over $1 billion. Gross domestic expenditure on research and development by the federal and provincial governments remained steady from 1998 to 2008 at about $2 billion and under $1 billion respectively. Gross domestic expenditure on research and development by higher education increased steadily from 1998, when it was about $5 billion, to 2008, when it was just over $8.5 billion. Business peaked in 2001 at gross domestic expenditures on research and development of over $14 billion, but has remained steady after dipping to below $14 billion in 2002.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 358-0001, July 15, 2010.

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Figure 5: Business-Financed Research and Development Performed by Higher Education, 1971 to 2009

This line graph compares business-financed research and development performed by higher education by looking at the percentage share of total business-financed research and development performed by the higher education sector and aggregate business funding of higher education research and development in current Canadian dollars. The share of total business-financed research and development performed by the higher education sector was just over 3 percent in 1971, peaking at 6.59 percent in 1992 and dropping to 6.27 percent by 2009. While the share of total business financed R&D that was performed by the higher education sector declined somewhat between 1992 and 2009, aggregate business funding of higher education research and development had strong growth over the entire period shown in the chart, from $11 million in 1971 to $293 million in 1992 to $889 million in 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 358-0001, September 2010.

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Figure 6: Higher Education Performance of Research and Development, 2006 and 2008

This vertical bar graph compares higher education performance of research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product in 2006 and 2008 in 31 countries. Sweden ranked first at close to 0.8 percent in 2008, followed by Switzerland at just over 0.7 percent. Canada ranked sixth at 0.64 percent, down slightly from 0.66 percent in 2006. Finland, Austria and Israel followed Canada.

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2010.

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Figure 7: Federal Expenditures on Higher Education Research and Development (Constant 2002 Dollars), 1997–98 to 2008–09

This vertical bar graph compares federal expenditures on higher education research and development, in terms of infrastructure and research, in millions of constant 2002 dollars from 1997–98 to 2008–09. In this context, federal expenditures on higher education research and development are defined as the three granting councils and the Canada Foundation for Innovation's expenditures on research and development in the higher education sector. Infrastructure includes expenditures for all Canada Foundation for Innovation programs except for the Infrastructure Operating Fund, and equipment and tools programs from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Research includes all other research grants from the granting councils and the Infrastructure Operating Fund portion of the Canada Foundation for Innovation. There has been a steady increase in expenditures on research from over $500 million in 1997–98 to almost $2 billion in 2008–09. Infrastructure expenditures have also increased steadily from 1997–98 to 2001–02 and then remained relatively stable from 2001–02 to 2008–09.

Source: Industry Canada calculation based on data from Statistics Canada
(Catalogue 88-204) and the Granting Councils' Funding Decision Databases.

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Figure 8a: Indirect Government Support through Research and Development Tax Incentives, 2008

This vertical bar graph compares indirect government funding of business research and development through R&D tax incentives in 2008 as a percentage of gross domestic product in 23 countries. Canada had the highest indirect government support through research and development tax incentives as a percentage of gross domestic product at 0.22 percent, followed by Korea and Belgium.

Source: OECD (2010), Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2010.

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Figure 8b: Direct Government Funding of Business Research and Development, 2008

This vertical bar graph compares direct government funding of business research and development in 2008 as a percentage of gross domestic product in 23 countries. The United States had the highest direct government funding of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at about 0.18 percent, followed by France and Korea. Canada ranked low in this regard at 0.02 percent after countries such as Sweden, Norway, Germany, the U.K., Japan and the Netherlands.

Source: OECD (2010), Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2010.

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Figure 9 - Table

Figure 10 - Table

Figure 11: Total Expenditures on Good or Service Innovations, 2009

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of enterprises with total expenditures on good or service innovations in 2009 in five categories. These categories are $0; $1 to less than $50,000; $50,000 to less than $200,000; $200,000 to less than $1,000,000, and $1,000,000 or more. The wholesale trade and utilities industries had no instances of enterprises not spending anything on good or service innovations. About 20 percent of enterprises in the information and cultural industries and the wholesale trade industry spent $1 million or more on good or service innovations. Finance and insurance had the highest percentage of enterprises spending $1 to less than $50,000 at about 30 percent. The wholesale trade industry had the lowest percentage of enterprises spending between $200,000 and $1 million at about 5 percent. In most other industries about 20 percent of enterprises have expenditures in this range. The utilities industry had the highest percentage of enterprises spending $1 million or more on good or service innovations at 40 percent.

Source: Survey of Innovation and Business Strategy, 2009.

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Figure 12: Total Expenditures on Process Innovations, 2009

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of enterprises with total expenditures on process innovations in 2009 in five categories. These categories are $0; $1 to less than $50,000; $50,000 to less than $150,000; $150,000 to less than $500,000, and $500,000 or more. The retail trade and utilities industries had no instances of enterprises not spending anything on process innovations. Less than 2 percent of finance and insurance enterprises spent nothing on process innovations. Transportation and warehousing had the highest percentage of enterprises spending $1 to less than $50,000 on process innovations. The percentage of enterprises spending $50,000 to less than $150,000 on process innovations was similar for all industries at about 20 percent, except for retail trade, which was lowest at about 5 percent. Retail trade had the highest percentage of enterprises spending $150,000 to less than $500,000 at about 95 percent. Utilities had the highest percentage of enterprises spending $500,000 or more on process innovations at over 50 percent.

Source: Survey of Innovation and Business Strategy, 2009.

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Figure 13: Business Expenditure on Research and Development Intensity by Country, 1998, 2003 and 2008 (as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product)

This vertical bar graph compares business research and development intensity (expressed as business expenditure on research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product) by country for 1998, 2003 and 2008 in 37 countries. Of the 37 countries, 19 did not see an increase in business research and development intensity compared with the 2003 period. Israel had the highest business research and development intensity in 2008 at 4.0 percent, followed by Sweden at almost 3.0 percent and Finland at 2.7 percent. Canada's business research and development intensity was 1.0 percent in 2008, down from about 1.3 percent in 2003. Greece had the lowest business research and development intensity at under 0.5 percent.

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2010.

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Figure 14: Business Expenditure on Research and Development in Canada, 1991 to 2010

This line graph shows Canadian business enterprise expenditure on research and development in current dollars and 2002 constant dollars from 1991 to 2010. There was fairly strong growth in business R&D performance from 1991 to 2001, when the information and communications technologies sector collapse led to a rapid decrease in business R&D performance. In current dollar terms, Canadian business R&D was above the 2001 level in 2009; however, in constant, inflation-adjusted terms, Canadian business R&D performance in 2009 was actually lower than it was in 2001. In 2009, Canadian business R&D performance was valued at around $15 billion in current dollars, or around $13 billion in 2002 constant dollars.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 358-0001, January 2011.

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Figure 15: Business Expenditure on Research and Development Share of Value-Added in Industry,* 2008

This vertical bar graph compares business enterprise expenditure on research and development share of value-added in industry in 30 countries. Finland ranked highest at about 4.4 percent followed by Sweden, also around 4.4 percent. Canada ranked sixteenth at 1.42 percent, preceded by the United Kingdom, Australia and Luxembourg and followed by the Netherlands, Ireland and Portugal. Mexico ranked lowest at 0.2 percent.

* – Value-added by industry is based on gross value-added net of 'real estate activities,' 'financial intermediation services indirectly measured' and the public sector; i.e., it is a measure of private sector productive value-added. Return to text
Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2010.

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Figure 16: Composition/Comparison of Canadian, United States, Swedish, German, Finnish and Australian Economies (Share of Gross Domestic Product), 2005

This series of six pie charts compares the composition by industrial sector of the Canadian economy with that of the United States, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Australia in 2005. Special attention is given to the energy extraction, non-energy mining and quarrying, chemical manufacturing and information and communications technologies (ICT) manufacturing sectors to highlight the differences between these economies' structures.

In 2005, Canada's GDP contributions by each of these industrial sectors were: 8 percent energy extraction, 1 percent non-energy mining and quarrying, 1 percent chemical manufacturing, and 1 percent information and communications technologies manufacturing.

In 2005, the United States' GDP contributions by each of these industrial sectors were: 1.5 percent energy extraction, 0.3 percent non-energy mining and quarrying, 1.6 percent chemical manufacturing, and 1.4 percent information and communications technologies manufacturing.

In 2005, the Swedish GDP contributions by each of these industrial sectors were: zero percent energy extraction, 0.5 percent non-energy mining and quarrying, 2.5 percent chemical manufacturing, and 2.7 percent information and communications technologies manufacturing.

In 2005, the German GDP contributions by each of these industrial sectors were: 0.1 percent energy extraction, 0.1 percent non-energy mining and quarrying, 2.4 percent chemical manufacturing, and 3.3 percent information and communications technologies manufacturing.

In 2005, the Finnish GDP contributions by each of these industrial sectors were: 0.1 percent energy extraction, 0.2 percent non-energy mining and quarrying, 1.4 percent chemical manufacturing, and 5.7 percent information and communications technologies manufacturing

In 2005, the Australian GDP contributions by these industrial sectors were: 7.3 percent all mining and quarrying, 0.8 percent chemical manufacturing, and 0.6 percent information and communications technologies manufacturing.

Source: OECD STAN Database for Structural Analysis, November 2010.

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Figure 17: Business Expenditure on Research and Development Contribution by Industry, 2000 and 2007

This vertical bar graph compares the contribution, by industry, of Canadian business R&D expenditures in 2000 and 2007 in 11 industries and services. The contribution made by ICT manufacturing substantially decreased, while that made by computer services and the software industry increased significantly. The finance and insurance, telecommunications and oil and gas industries also grew in terms of their contributions to total Canadian business R&D over this period.

Sources: Statistics Canada tabulations for STIC; Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 358-0024.
Note: STIC analysis is based on disaggregated data at the three- and four-digit NAICS level as of July 2010. Data revisions for a number of years were released on December 8, 2010, and are not reflected in the analysis presented.

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Figure 18: Business Research and Development Intensity by Industry, 2005 (Business Expenditure on Research and Development/Value-Added)

This vertical bar graph compares Canada's business research and development intensity by industry in 2005 with the average business research and development intensity of available Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries,* as well as with the average business R&D intensity for the five available countries with the highest R&D intensities in that industry. Canada's highest business research and development intensity (expressed as R&D as a share of value-added) was in information and communications technologies manufacturing at about 31 percent. This was well above the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average of less than 20 percent, but slightly below average intensity for the top five countries at about 33 percent. Canada's lowest business research and development intensity as a share of value-added was in construction at less than 1 percent, which was about the same for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and the top five business expenditure on research and development intensity countries. R&D intensity in Canada's automotive manufacturing industry and chemical manufacturing industry substantially lagged both the OECD average and the average of the five most R&D intensive national industries.

* – Australia, Austria, Belgium (PF), Canada, Czech Rep., Denmark, Finland (PF), France (PF), Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Korea, Spain, Sweden (PF), U.K. (PF), U.S. Return to text
Sources: OECD ANBERD, STAN and OFFBERD databases; KLEMS database and STIC estimates.

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Figure 19: Distribution of Business Performance of Research and Development by Revenue Size of Firm

This vertical bar graph shows the contribution to total research and development in a sector made by small firms (under $1 million in revenues) medium firms ($1 million to $50 million in revenues) and large firms (over $50 million in revenues). For the Canadian economy as a whole, just over 64% of R&D was performed by large firms, with medium firms and small firms accounting for the remaining 27% and 9%, respectively. In some industrial sectors, however, small and medium-sized firms accounted for the majority of total business R&D. This was the case for the real estate, rental and leasing industry sector and for the professional, scientific and technical services sector.

Source: Statistics Canada tabulations for STIC, November 2010.

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Figure 20: Information and Communications Technologies Capital Intensity (Investment per Worker), 2004

This vertical bar graph compares information and communications technologies capital intensity (investment per worker) in Canada against the average of available countries in United States' dollars. Available countries included Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Sweden, U.K. and the United States. Post and telecommunications industries, which include the telecommunications service industries, had the highest investment per worker. The Canadian average for this industry was over $14,000, which surpassed the average of available countries at about $12,000. The Canadian average for utilities was about $10,000 compared with the average of available countries at only $7,000.

Source: KLEMS database.

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Figure 21: Share of Advanced Technology Capital Stock in Total Machinery and Equipment Capital Stock, Average 2004 to 2008

This vertical bar graph compares the share of advanced technology capital stock in total machinery and equipment capital stock in 13 industries. Telecommunications had the highest share of advanced technology capital stock at over 90 percent, followed by computer systems design and services at around 80 percent, and scientific research and development services at about 79 percent. Oil and gas extraction is the lowest share of advanced technology capital stock at about 1 percent, followed by petroleum and coal products manufacturing at 5 percent, and support activities for mining and oil and gas extraction, also at about 5 percent.

Source: Statistics Canada tabulations for STIC.

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Figure 22: Advanced Technology Capital Stock by Asset Type (Average 2004 to 2008)

This vertical bar graph compares advanced technology capital stock by asset type for 2004 to 2008. It looks at communications equipment, instrumentation and information technology in 13 industries. Information technology is the most important component for most of the industries. Communications equipment was the most important component for the telecommunications industry at over 80 percent. Advanced technology capital stock in the scientific research and development services industry was almost evenly distributed between communications equipment, instrumentation and information technology. Advanced technology capital stock in computer and electronic product manufacturing was almost even for instrumentation and information technology, with the remaining 10 percent for communications equipment.

Source: Statistics Canada tabulations for STIC.

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Figure 23a: Information Technology Services Intensity, Mining and Quarrying Industry (mid-2000s)

This vertical bar graph compares information technology services intensity for the mining and quarrying industry in the mid-2000s in 27 countries. Korea ranked highest at about 3.8 percent, followed by Ireland at 2.4 percent and Canada at 2.3 percent. Mexico ranked lowest with under 0.1 percent, preceded by Greece at 0.1 percent and Germany at 0.2 percent.

Sources: OECD STAN IO Table database; STIC calculation based on 2005 W-Level Commodity IO Table, Statistics Canada.

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Figure 23b: Information Technology Services Intensity, Finance and Insurance (mid-2000s)

This vertical bar graph compares information technology services intensity for the finance and insurance industry in the mid-2000s in 27 countries. Finland ranked highest at 13.5 percent, followed by Italy at about 9.3 percent and the Czech Republic at 9.1 percent. Canada ranked seventh at 7.9 percent. Mexico ranked lowest at about 0.3 percent, preceded by Luxembourg and Turkey.

Sources: OECD STAN IO Table database; STIC calculation based on 2005 W-Level Commodity IO Table, Statistics Canada.

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Figure 24: Technology Intensive Services Trade — Receipts of and Payments for — as a Percentage of Total Commercial Services

This vertical bar graph compares technology intensive services trade — receipts of and payments for — as a percentage of total commercial services from 1990 to the first three quarters of 2010. It looks at receipts of and payments for four categories of technology intensive services transactions: computer and information services; royalties and licence fees; research and development; and architectural, engineering and other technical services.

The largest component of technology intensive commercial service exports (receipts) was in computer and information services in 2006 at 12.7 percent, followed closely by architectural, engineering and other technical services in the first three quarters of 2010 at 12.5 percent. Royalties and licence fees were low in 1990 at around 2 percent, but grew steadily until 2006 when they were about 10 percent. Royalties and licence fees have fluctuated slightly since then and were around 8 percent in the first three quarters of 2010.

Architectural, engineering and other technical services had slight growth from 1990 at about minus 3 percent of total commercial services payments to almost minus 10 percent in the first three quarters of 2010. Research and development payments remained fairly steady from 1990 to the first three quarters of 2010, averaging between minus 2 percent and minus 4 percent. Royalties and licence fees had the highest payments between 1990 and the first three quarters of 2010, averaging about minus 13 to minus 17 percent. Computer and information services were also fairly steady over the period, averaging between minus 1 and minus 4 percent.

Source: Compilation by STIC Secretariat based on data from Statistics Canada.

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Figure 25: Trend in Venture Capital Investment (United States and Canada)

This line graph compares the trend in venture capital investments for the United States and Canada from 1996 to 2009. In 1996, Canada's venture capital investment was about $1 billion Canadian compared with around $10 billion American for the United States. Venture capital investments for both countries increased steadily until 2000, with Canada at $5.9 billion Canadian and the United States at $100.4 billion American. Both countries then experienced the same decline after 2000, which subsequently started to stabilize around 2003. In 2009, Canada's venture capital investment was about $1 billion Canadian compared with about $18 billion American for the United States.

Sources: Canada — Thomson Reuters VC Reporter 2010;
United States — PricewaterhouseCoopers/National Venture Capital Association MoneyTree based on data from Thomson Reuters.

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Figure 26: Table

Figure 27: Cross-Border Trademarks per Million Population (Selected Countries, Average 2005 to 2007)

This vertical bar graph compares the average number of cross-border trademarks per million population for 19 select countries for the period 2005 to 2007. Switzerland ranked first with close to 300 trademarks, followed by Denmark with about 79 trademarks and Sweden with about 74 trademarks. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries' average was about 40 trademarks. Canada was below the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average with about 29 trademarks, but was higher than the world total, which was only about 8 trademarks.

Source: OECD (2010), "Protection of innovation," OECD Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective.

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Figure 28: Number of University Spinoff Companies by Year of Incorporation, 2005 to 2008

This vertical bar graph compares the number of university spinoff companies by year of incorporation for 2005 to 2008. The highest number of spinoff companies, at close to 25 companies, were incorporated in 2007, followed at just under 20 companies in 2008, about 16 companies in 2005 and 14 companies in 2006.

Source: AUTM Canadian Licensing Activity Survey.

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Figure 29 - Table

Figure 30: Length of Time Students Have Been Using a Computer and Mean Programme for International Student Assessment Science Score, 2006

This vertical bar graph compares the length of time students have been using a computer and the mean Programme for International Student Assessment science score in 2006 in 25 countries. It correlates computer use for more than 5 years, 3 to 5 years, 1 to 3 years and less than 1 year with mean Programme for International Student Assessment science scores. Finland ranked first with a Programme for International Student Assessment science score of over 570, followed by Japan at over 550, New Zealand at about 550 and Canada at about 540. The same four countries ranked highest for countries in which students have been using a computer for more than 5 years. For countries in which students have been using a computer for 3 to 5 years, Finland again had the highest Programme for International Student Assessment science score, followed by Japan and Canada. For countries in which students have been using a computer for 1 to 3 years, Finland ranked first followed by Japan.

Source: OECD (2010), Educational Research and Innovation — Are New Millennium Learners Making the Grade?: Technology Use and Educational Performance in PISA.

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Figure 31: Percentage of 25 to 64 Year-Old Population with Tertiary Education, Top 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Countries, 2008

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of the 25 to 64 year-old population with a tertiary education in the top 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries in 2008. Canada ranked first with 49 percent, evenly split between college and university education. Japan ranked second at about 42 percent, followed by New Zealand and the United States, both at 40 percent. The percentage of the 25 to 64 year-old population with a tertiary education in Norway was about 33 percent, with about 32 percent with a university education. Australia had the lowest percentage of the 25 to 64 year-old population with a tertiary education at about 18 percent.

Source: OECD (2010), Education at a Glance 2009.

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Figure 32: Graduation Rates from Tertiary Education (1995, 2000, 2008)

The two vertical bar graphs presented in this figure show growth or decline in the percentage of students who are first-time graduates from university- or college-level programs.

The first vertical bar graph compares graduation rates of university-level students in 1995, 2000 and 2008 in 23 countries. Finland ranked first with over 60 percent in 2008, followed by Poland at about 50 percent and Australia at just under 50 percent. Canada ranked sixteenth at 34.4 percent, lower than the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average of 38 percent. The year cited for Canada and Australia was 2007 instead of 2008. Mexico ranked last at less than 20 percent.

The second vertical bar graph compares graduation rates of college-level students in 1995, 2000 and 2008 in 19 countries. Canada ranked first with 29.6 percent in 2008, followed by Japan and Ireland. The year cited for Canada and Australia was 2007 instead of 2008. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average was about 11 percent. Finland ranked last in 2008 with no college-level graduates, down from about 8 percent in 2000. Norway had about 2 percent college-level graduates in 2008 and Italy had about 3 percent.

Source: OECD (2010), Education at a Glance 2010.

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Figure 33 - Table

Figure 34: Annual Number of Persons Enrolled and Degrees Granted in Canadian University Undergraduate Science, Engineering, Math, Computer, Information Sciences and Related Programs

This line graph compares the annual number of persons enrolled and degrees granted in Canadian university undergraduate science, engineering, math, computer, information sciences and related programs from 1992 to 2008. The graph shows an increase in enrolment for both physical and life sciences and architecture, engineering and related programs since 1992. In 1992, physical and life sciences had about 60,000 students enrolled while architecture, engineering and related programs had about 51,000 students enrolled. By 2008, there were over 70,000 students enrolled in physical and life sciences and just under 70,000 students enrolled in architecture, engineering and related programs. Enrolment in math, computer and information sciences was about 28,000 in 1992, peaking in 2001 at about 40,000 and falling to about 25,000 in 2008.

The number of degrees granted remained relatively even for all programs. Under 10,000 degrees were granted in 1992 in physical and life sciences, increasing to about 13,000 in 2008. About 5,000 degrees were granted in 1992 in math, computer and information sciences, peaking in 2003 at about 8,000 and falling to about 5,000 in 2008. About 9,000 degrees were granted in 1992 in architecture, engineering and related programs, increasing to about 12,000 in 2008.

Source: OECD (2009), Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2009, p. 133.

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Figure 35: Graduates of Doctoral (Advanced Research) Programs per Million Population

This vertical bar graph compares graduates of doctoral (advanced research) programs per million population for 2002 and 2008 in 24 countries. Canada had 145.8 doctoral graduates per million population in 2008, which was an increase from 129.6 in 2000 (2002 data on Canada were not available). In 2008, Canada ranked near the bottom of the 24 comparator countries. Sweden, Germany, the U.K., Norway, the U.S., the Netherlands and Korea are among the countries that outrank Canada.

Sources: 2008 data — OECD (2010), "Graduates by field of education," OECD Education and Skills (database); 2002 data — OECD (2006), Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2006.

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Figure 36 - Table

Figure 37: Doctoral Students Who Were Canadian Residents and Enrolled in Canadian University Science-Based Programs

This line graph compares the number of doctoral students who were Canadian residents and were enrolled in five different Canadian university science-based programs from 1999 to 2008. Physical and life sciences, and technologies had about 4,800 doctoral students enrolled in 1999, increasing to 7,100 in 2008. Architecture, engineering and related technologies had about 2,200 doctoral students enrolled in 1999, increasing to about 4,500 in 2008. Health and fitness had about 1,400 doctoral students enrolled in 1999, increasing to about 2,800 in 2008. Mathematics, computer and information sciences had about 800 doctoral students enrolled in 1999, increasing to about 1,900 in 2008. Agriculture, natural resources and conservation remained steady at about 700 doctoral students enrolled in 1999 and about 800 in 2008.

Source: Statistics Canada, Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS), 2010.

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Figure 38: 2006 Unemployment Rates of Doctorate Holders by Field of Science

This vertical bar graph compares 2006 unemployment rates of doctorate holders by field of science in 12 countries. The fields of science include natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences and the humanities. Portugal had the lowest unemployment rates, on average, followed by Poland and the United States between 1990 and 2006. Belgium had the highest unemployment rate for the humanities at over 7 percent, followed by Denmark at over 6 percent. Canada and Belgium had about the same unemployment rate for social sciences at over 3 percent. Belgium, Finland and Denmark had the highest unemployment rate for agricultural sciences at over 4 percent for Belgium and about 3.5 percent for Finland and Denmark. Canada had the highest unemployment rate for medical sciences at close to 3 percent, followed by the United States at just over 1 percent. Canada also had the highest unemployment rate for engineering at 4 percent, followed by Australia at about 3.1 percent. Belgium had the highest unemployment rate for natural sciences at about 3.2 percent, followed closely by Finland at about 3.1 percent and Canada at 3 percent.

Note: 2005 data for Belgium, Finland and Norway; 1987–2005 graduates and 2005 data for Denmark.
* Unemployment rates for these countries are for PhD holders who received their degrees between 1990 and 2006.
Source: OECD, 2009 OECD/UIS/Eurostat data collection on careers of doctorate holders.

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Figure 39: Private Internal Rate of Return for an Individual Obtaining Tertiary Education as Part of Initial Education, 2006

This vertical bar graph compares the private internal rate of return for an individual obtaining a tertiary education relative to the initial investment in education in 2006 for males and females in 18 countries. Poland ranked highest at 19 percent for females and 21 percent for males, followed by Turkey and Portugal, which had rates of return of about 18 percent for both males and females. Belgium had higher rates of return for females, at 14 percent, than males at 12 percent. Canada ranked below the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average with rates of return of 8.8 percent for females and 9.6 percent for males. Denmark ranked last with rates of return of 3 percent for females and 4 percent for males.

Source: OECD (2010), Education at a Glance 2009.

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Figure 40: Share of Human Resources in Science and Technology Employees by Industry, 2007

This vertical bar graph compares the share of human resources in science and technology by services and manufacturing industries as a percentage of total employees in 21 countries in 2007. Sweden ranked first with about 26 percent of science and technology employees in manufacturing and 44 percent in services. Canada ranked eleventh with about 10 percent of science and technology employees in manufacturing and about 36 percent in services. Japan ranked last with about 8 percent of science and technology employees in manufacturing and 20 percent in services.

Source: OECD (2009), Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard.

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Figure 41: Growth of Human Resources in Science and Technology Employees by Industry, 1997 to 2007

This vertical bar graph compares the growth of human resources in science and technology employees by industry from 1997 to 2007 in 18 countries. Canada had an average annual growth rate of 3.6 percent in manufacturing and 3.7 percent in services. Japan had an average annual growth rate of almost 6 percent in services, but around -1 percent in manufacturing. Sweden and the United States also had negative growth for manufacturing, but around 3 percent and 1 percent, respectively, in services.

Source: OECD (2009), Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2009, p. 137.

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Figure 42: Researchers, 2007 and Growth of Business Researchers, 1997 to 2007

The two horizontal bar graphs presented in this figure show the number of researchers in 2007 per 1,000 total employment and the growth of business researchers from 1997 to 2007.

The first horizontal bar graph compares the number of researchers in business enterprises and government and higher education in 2007 per 1,000 total employment in 28 countries. Finland ranked first with about nine business enterprise researchers and about seven researchers in government and higher education. Canada ranked twelfth with five business enterprise researchers and three researchers in government and higher education. The average for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries in 2006 (instead of 2007) ranked fourteenth with about five business enterprise researchers and two researchers in government and higher education. Mexico ranked last with about one business enterprise researcher and one researcher in government and higher education.

The second horizontal bar graph compares the growth in business researchers from 1997 to 2007 in 27 countries. Portugal ranked first with an average annual growth rate of about 23 percent, followed by South Africa at 19 percent (2001-2005) and Turkey at 17 percent. Canada's average annual growth rate from 1997 to 2005 was 5.9 percent, which was higher than the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average (1997-2006) at around 3 percent. The Russian Federation ranked last with an average annual growth rate of -3 percent.

Source: OECD (2009), Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2009, p. 41.
Researchers, 2007 and Growth of Business Researchers, 1997-2007.