State of the Nation 2012

Chapter 6: Talent Development and Deployment


At their core, science, technology and innovation (STI) are fundamentally human activities. It is people who create knowledge and transform that knowledge into goods and services that Canadians and others in today's world need and want. Talent has become the key competitive differentiator in the global economy, and having the right people in the right place at the right time positions us for success.

Canada's highly-educated population continues to be an asset, as education provides a fundamental foundation for STI, and thus productivity and economic growth. Canada has much to celebrate regarding our education system—a fact acknowledged by the World Economic Forum and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), who note that Canada has been successful in nurturing high-quality talent compared with other advanced economies.137 As reported in State of the Nation 2008 and 2010, 15-year-old Canadian students continue to perform well internationally, ranking high in the OECD in terms of reading, math and problem-solving skills, and science. Approximately half of our adult population has attained a university or college education, one of the highest levels worldwide. There is also continuing impressive growth in the number of science and engineering doctoral degrees in Canada (although Canada continues to produce fewer doctoral graduates than many other key countries).


 

Canada's highly-educated population continues to be an asset.

Even in this area of strength, Canada cannot afford to be complacent. With other economies (especially emerging economies) making significant investments in their education systems, the quantity and quality of talent in other countries is increasing. This improving performance in other jurisdictions is affecting Canada's relative position on a number of talent development indicators, and Canada risks erosion of its competitive advantage in this area. A coordinated strategy to maintain and expand this competitive advantage is vital to Canada's success in the 21st century.

Canada could also do more to ensure that its talent is prepared to contribute fully to an innovative, productive and competitive economy. This means better marrying of STI and business knowledge, as well as developing talent with a wide range of skills and perspectives. Opportunities lie in enhancing work-integrated learning for students, improving the links between business and STI curricula, and encouraging more international learning opportunities that help students expand their experience.

Above all, to be competitive, Canada needs to better deploy its STI talent—to strategically position people to create new knowledge and translate that knowledge into innovative products and processes. On this front, Canada's performance—reflected in the ability to employ human resources in science and technology, particularly researchers, in the labour force—continues to be disappointing.

TALENT DEVELOPMENT

Developing world-class talent is the foundation for Canada's success now and in the future. Nurturing and growing the knowledge and skills of people through all stages of their lives allows them to contribute to society and the economy, and it underpins the country's progress and competitiveness in all areas. Investment in ongoing, high-quality education, training, and mentoring of our talent must be a priority.

Preparing our Young Talent

A secondary education prepares young talent for university or college and is an important step toward success at work.

Secondary Student Enrolment

Canada continues to have relatively high enrolment rates (as a proportion of population) for 15 to 19 year-olds in upper secondary education. Since 1995, the rate has remained constant, hovering around 80 percent. Specifically, in 2009, 81 percent of 15 to 19 year-olds in Canada were enrolled in upper secondary education. At the same time, performance has been improving among other countries. Enrolment rates among 15 to 19 year-olds in OECD countries increased, on average, by 10.4 percentage points between 1995 and 2010, with the average rate reaching 83 percent in 2010.138

The percentage of those aged 20 to 24 in Canada who were not attending school and had not graduated from high school (known as persons not in education, employment or training, i.e. “dropouts”) has decreased steadily from 1990–91 (when it was 16.6 percent) to 2011–12 (7.8 percent).139 Furthermore, dropout rates have decreased for both men and women, from 19.2 percent for men and 14.0 percent for women in 1990–91, to 9.7 percent for men and 5.9 percent for women in 2011–12. As in many countries, dropout rates have also been consistently lower for women than for men. Between 1990–91 and 2011–12, the average disparity was 4.2 percentage points.

Secondary Student Performance

As reported in State of the Nation 2010, Canadian 15-year-olds continued to perform well according to the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), displaying strong skill sets in reading, mathematics and problem-solving, and science. While Canada's scores remained stable between 2000 and 2009, and the country continued to rank near the top of OECD economies in each of these skill sets,140 its relative ranking declined in all three areas. In 2009, Canada ranked sixth in reading (down from fourth in 2006), tenth in math (down from seventh in 2006) and eighth in science (down from third in 2006). This decline can likely be attributed to improvements in the performance of other countries as they grow their investments in their educational systems, and to the introduction in PISA ratings of Shanghai (China) and Singapore, both of which demonstrated high performance levels.

In Canada, notable gender differences exist in secondary student performance (as measured by PISA in 2009), with girls outperforming boys in reading and boys outperforming girls in both mathematics and science.141 In terms of reading, Canadian girls scored an average 34 points higher than boys (or over half a proficiency level and roughly the equivalent of an average school year's progress). As reading proficiency is linked to continuing in education,142 this could be a factor in explaining why secondary school dropout rates have been consistently lower for girls than for boys. For math, the gender disparity in Canada was the same as the average difference across OECD economies, with boys scoring 12 points higher than girls. This disparity was smaller than that in the United States (U.S.) and the United Kingdom (U.K.), but greater than that in most of the economies where 15-year-old students performed better than Canada in math.143 For science, the gender disparity is less marked. In most economies, differences in the average score for boys and girls were not statistically significant. For Canada, boys outperformed girls by five points, which again was less than the U.S. and the U.K. but greater than every economy where 15-year-old students performed better than Canada in science.144 These findings suggest that Canada could improve its overall PISA performance by reducing the educational disparities between boys and girls.

Engaging Secondary Students in Science and Technology

Gender differences also carry over into the career expectations of secondary students. Forty-two percent of 15-year-old students in Canada reported that they expected a science-related career at age 30.145 This is similar to results for the U.S. (45 percent) and higher than the OECD average of 33 percent. It is interesting to note that, of these 15-year-old students in Canada, only 3.2 percent of girls expected a career in engineering, architecture and computing, compared to 18.8 percent of boys. This is fairly consistent with the OECD results, where 4.6 percent of girls expected a career in engineering, architecture and computing, compared to 18.2 percent of boys. This picture changes, however, when it comes to pursuing a career in health services. In every OECD economy, including Canada, more girls than boys reported that they wanted to pursue a career in health services, a pattern that holds even after nurses and midwives are excluded from the list of health-related careers. In Canada, 30.1 percent of the 15-year-old girls who reported that they expected a science-related career at age 30 identified health services as their expected career (compared to 11.8 percent of boys).

We are living in a digital world, where information technology is an integral part of our daily lives and embedded in many of the products we develop and use at leisure and at work. Access, skills and use are three common indicators used to measure and compare information and communications technologies (ICT) across countries. As access and skills are preconditions to ICT use, it is helpful to consider the use of ICT in education. According to the 2009 index of computer use by students,146 constructed to summarize the frequency with which students perform different types of ICT activities at school,147 Canadian students use computers at school at a frequency above the OECD average, but below leading countries such as Denmark, Norway, Australia and Sweden. In terms of teaching digital literacy, Canada could learn from other countries, such as Uruguay and South Korea, which are paving the way for the widespread use of digital technologies by systematically introducing them into their education systems.148 In terms of the broader population, according to the International Telecommunications Union,149 in 2011 Canada ranked 23rd in ICT access among 155 economies (a drop from 22nd position in 2010), 20th in ICT skills, and 19th in ICT use (both unchanged from 2010). These rankings stand in contrast to the quickly rising rankings of emerging economies such as Brazil, Estonia and Vietnam.


 

Canada's proportion of the population with a college or university education continues to be the highest in the OECD.

Supply of Advanced Skills: College and University Education

College and/or university educational attainment is an important indicator of a country's supply of advanced skills that contribute to science, technology and innovation. According to 2010 data, Canada's proportion of the population (25 to 64 years old) with a college or university education, at 51 percent, continued to be the highest among available OECD countries, as demonstrated in Figure 6-1. Israel held the second position, followed by Japan, the U.S. and New Zealand. This proportion was even higher (56 percent) for the cohort of 25 to 34 year-olds, a performance exceeded only by Japan and Korea. Of the 25 to 64 year-old Canadian population that had attained a college or university education, women had a higher attainment rate at approximately 55 percent compared to an attainment rate for men of 45 percent.


Paving the Way for a New Generation of Batteries

Linda Nazar's research on lithium batteries has been described as “groundbreaking and transformational” by her peers. Her work, exploring the potential of nanotechnology in lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries, is paving the way for a new generation of cost-effective, environmentally friendly batteries.

Dr. Lazar is a faculty member in the University of Waterloo's Department of Chemistry, and is cross appointed to the Department of Electrical Engineering. She is also a member of the Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology and a Canada Research Chair in Solid State Materials. Looking for safe, low cost, long lasting, and rechargeable means of storing energy is one of the greatest challenges in filling the gap between the growing demand for readily available energy and the development and growth of sustainable and clean energy supplies. The prospect of “better” batteries has, for decades, preoccupied scientists, engineers and the manufacturers of modern day battery-operated products. For instance, electrified vehicles are seen as an excellent way of shifting our economy's reliance on fossil fuels to less costly and more environmentally sustainable energy sources. The challenge is that the batteries on which these vehicles operate do not have the capacity that drivers want and demand. Many of the electrified vehicles currently on the market can only travel very limited ranges on a single charge. Dr. Nazar's work is paving the way for a new generation of batteries that can power a car for several hundred kilometres on a single charge and cost far less than today's lithium batteries.

College Education

To a significant degree, Canada's leadership position in educational attainment is attributable to the role of colleges in Canada's education system.150 In Canada, colleges of applied arts and technology and private career colleges have full-time and part-time diploma (two or three year) and certificate (one year or less) programs, as well as pre-trades and apprenticeship training, language training and skills upgrading. A number of colleges—for example the polytechnics—also offer undergraduate-level degrees in applied areas of study. Colleges tend to focus on applied and/or career-oriented programs.

At 24.2 percent, the proportion of the 25 to 64 year-old population in Canada with a college education is considerably higher than that of any other OECD member country (Figure 6-1).151 Canada's first-place rank on this measure has not changed in 12 years. Figure 6-2 shows that the field of business, management and public administration witnessed the largest number of graduates from Canadian colleges from 2000–01 through to 2010–11.152

University Education (All Levels)

With respect to university education, the proportion of Canada's 25 to 64 year-old population with a university degree (in undergraduate, master's and doctoral programs combined) is 26.4 percent (Figure 6-1). While this represents a notable increase over the last dozen years (from 19.0 percent in 1998), Canada's relative rank on this measure has nonetheless deteriorated, from fourth among available OECD countries in 1998 to tenth in 2010. Clearly other countries are making significant strides in improving their performance in this area.

Over the four-year period from 2006 to 2010, there was a 5.4 percent increase in the number of degrees (all levels) granted by universities in Canada, with an impressive 31.8 percent increase in science degrees granted and a 7.3 percent increase in engineering degrees granted.153 The growth in the number of science degrees granted was driven largely by women, with growth twice that for men (45.8 percent compared to 20.7 percent). For engineering, the opposite was true, with 8.8 percent growth in the number of engineering degrees granted to men from 2006 to 2010, compared to 2.8 percent growth in the number granted to women.

In 2010, the largest shares of graduates (all levels) from Canadian universities were in the fields of business and administration (18 percent), social and behavioural sciences (14.9 percent), humanities and arts (12.4 percent), and education (11 percent) (Figure 6-3). Looking at the international context, relative to the average of comparator countries, Canada produced larger numbers of university graduates (as a proportion of all university graduates that year) in social and behavioural sciences as well as the science, technology, engineering and math disciplines known as the “STEM” disciplines, including life sciences,154 physical sciences, mathematics and statistics. Conversely, Canada produced fewer graduates in 2010 than the average of comparator countries in health, engineering and engineering trades, computing, and architecture and building.

Undergraduate and Master's Level Education

Looking at the undergraduate and master's levels specifically, Figure 6-4 demonstrates that, among the STEM disciplines, the most significant growth in the annual number of graduates from Canadian universities over the last decade has been in the health field. In 2010–11, there were almost one-third more graduates in health than the 2nd-place architecture and engineering, which was followed by physical and life sciences, then math, computer and information sciences, and finally agriculture, natural resources and conservation.


Understanding Human Nature

Understanding Human NatureKiley Hamlin is leading research that is expanding our understanding of human nature. Having obtained her PhD from Yale University in 2010, Dr. Hamlin is now Canada Research Chair in Developmental Psychology and Director of the University of British Columbia's Centre for Infant Cognition. Her research examines whether very young infants make social and moral judgments, and how this ability develops over the first few years of life. Her research is changing the way we think about the origins and development of morality and social behaviour.

There is no doubt that experience plays a large role in moral and social development. However, the work of Dr. Hamlin and her Canadian and American colleagues is showing that some aspects of socially important moral behaviour—such as the judgment of individuals' actions as good or bad, as deserving of reward or punishment, and as morally praiseworthy or blameworthy—may be innate. Observing very young infants who have not fully developed complex cognitive abilities (such as language and inhibitory control), and have little experience with cultural norms and values, Dr. Hamlin says she is “trying to answer questions that have puzzled evolutionary psychologists for decades. Namely, how have we survived as intensely social creatures if our sociability makes us vulnerable to being cheated and exploited? These findings suggest that, from as early as eight months, we are watching for people who might put us in danger and prefer to see anti-social behaviour regulated.”

In addition to degrees granted, it is interesting to look at trends in university undergraduate and master's-level enrolments (although it must be understood that these statistics reflect intentions to attain a designated education level and not attainment of the level itself). There are many factors that people consider when choosing to enroll in a particular field of study; however, it is known that prospective students choose fields of study, in part, on the basis of earnings they can expect in those fields. The demand for educational programming in particular fields of study therefore, in part, reflects demand for particular talent in the labour market. Mirroring graduation statistics, in 2010–11, the highest enrolments in STEM-based university programs in Canada were in health, followed by architecture and engineering, and physical and life sciences.155 In addition, given the importance of ICT to innovation, it is particularly encouraging to note that, in 2009–10 and 2010–11, enrolments in math, computer and information sciences have increased in Canada, following years of declining enrolments from 2002–03 through 2008–09. This could signal the gradual recovery of the information technology industry in Canada following the sharp decline ten years earlier.

Canada's Top Talent Supply: Doctoral Education

Doctoral graduates represent top talent in a world where the creation and application of new knowledge is driving much of today's global economic growth. A country's  ability to produce doctoral graduates is therefore an indicator of its potential to engage in cutting-edge research and commercialization and to train the next generation of talent.

Relative to other countries, Canada continues to produce fewer doctoral (advanced research156) graduates. In 2010, 15.9 persons per 100,000 population graduated at the doctoral level from Canadian universities, positioning Canada 21st among available OECD countries on this indicator (Figure 6-5). In interpreting these data, it is important to acknowledge that doctoral education varies quite substantially across countries in terms of its intensity (e.g., duration). Nonetheless, Canada would have to double the number of graduates per 100,000 population to break into the ranks of the top five performing countries (Slovak Republic, Switzerland, Sweden, Finland and Germany) in this area.


 

Relative to other countries, Canada continues to produce fewer doctoral graduates.

Although Canada continues to produce fewer doctoral graduates than many other key countries, its performance improves with respect to STEM disciplines. Relative to other available OECD countries, in 2010 Canada placed 15th in the number of science and engineering doctoral graduates per 100,000 population, performing at approximately 64 percent of the threshold of the top five performers (Slovak Republic, Switzerland, Sweden, Ireland and the U.K.) (Figure 6-6). Given the importance of doctoral talent to the creation and application of new knowledge, this is another indicator where Canada should focus concerted attention on enhancing its performance.

Figure 6-7 shows that Canada experienced 48.7 percent growth in the number of science doctoral graduates and 38.6 percent growth in the number of engineering doctoral graduates over the four-year period from 2006 to 2010, a growth rate notably surpassing many comparator countries. Globally and in Canada, while absolute numbers of science and engineering doctoral graduates have increased significantly since 2000, their relative share of total doctoral graduates (all fields) has been declining in a majority of available OECD countries, suggesting that Canada has been able to sustain its science and engineering research potential.

In terms of gender breakdown, in 2010, 52 percent of those graduating from doctoral programs in Canada were women. Among doctoral graduates, 34 percent of science and engineering graduates were women, on par with the U.S. and the U.K. (also at 34 percent). Although this figure reflects an under-representation of women in these fields, it is interesting to note the significant growth from 2006 to 2010 in the number of women graduating from science and engineering doctoral programs—57.4 percent and 54.6 percent, respectively, well ahead of the growth in the number of men graduating from these programs during this period.157

The largest proportion of doctoral graduates in STEM-based programs in 2010–11 was, by far, in physical and life sciences and architecture and engineering (Figure 6-8). However, by field of study, the highest growth rate from 2000 to 2011 in STEM-based PhD graduates in Canada was in math and computer and information sciences.

On a final note, turning to enrolments (again, these statistics reflect intentions to attain a designated education level and not attainment of the level itself), it is interesting to see positive growth in enrolments in all STEM-based doctoral programs since 2000–01. Enrolments in architecture and engineering doctoral programs saw the highest growth from 2000–01 to 2010–11 of all Canadian STEM-based PhD programs.158

Education of Canada's Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders

Canadian firms may lack an appreciation of the role that STI can play in improving their competitive position, and/or they may have weak receptor capacity to take advantage of and exploit science, technology and innovation opportunities. While there are many factors that influence STI investment decisions, focusing on the education of future corporate leaders is critical to enhancing Canada's competitive advantage.

Competitive businesses need educated leaders with the management, entrepreneurial and innovation 'savvy' to respond to the increasingly sophisticated marketplace. Figure 6-9 shows that 76.7 percent of Canadian managers159 have at least some post-secondary education, compared to 79.7 percent of American managers. However, only 12 percent of Canadian managers have graduate and/or doctoral degrees, compared to 19 percent of American managers.

Furthermore, Canada's business schools have shown little progress in improving their rankings in the top 100 of any of the global rankings of business schools since State of the Nation 2008. The evidence, in fact, suggests that Canada is falling slightly in the top 100, while the business schools of other countries are improving their respective rankings.


Connecting a Community of Talent

Virtual Marine Technology Inc. (VMT) graduated from the Genesis Centre in 2009.Connecting innovative people to the talent and experience around them that will help them become successful entrepreneurs is vital to the success of Canada's science, technology and innovation ecosystem. Business incubators such as the Genesis Centre help entrepreneurs take their ideas from start-up to prosperous enterprise by providing tools, information and, most importantly, advice.

A division of Genesis Group Inc.—the commercialization arm of Memorial University in St. John's, Newfoundland—the Genesis Centre helps technology entrepreneurs bring great ideas to the market by assisting them in the early stages of their companies' development and growth. Awarded the 2011 Canadian Business Incubator of the Year Award, the Centre helps entrepreneurs gain access to the marketing, financial and management expertise of mentors and advisory board members. It also connects its clients to the scientific, technical and business expertise resident at Memorial University. By helping these entrepreneurs develop comprehensive business plans and implement effective advisory boards, the Centre prepares promising ventures for private investment. Entrance to the Genesis Centre is a competitive process administered by a selection board of experienced business people. The result of all these networks is a community that connects the entrepreneurs to the relevant talent and experience around them.

Opened in 1997, the Genesis Centre has assisted 52 companies, 30 of which have “graduated.” Some notable graduates of the Centre include Rutter Technologies (now part of Rutter Inc.), Verafin, Virtual Marine Technology and Avalon Microelectronics (now Altera NTC). Clients and graduates of the Centre's programs now employ over 440 people and have raised over $22 million in private equity (63 percent of which came from outside the province).

In the 2012 Financial Times (FT) of London rankings,160 five Canadian business schools placed in the top 100 Master's in Business Administration (MBA) programs,161 positioning Canada fourth behind the U.S., the U.K., and China in the number of schools ranked in the top 100. Several countries have at least one school that placed ahead of Canada's top-ranked school (Rotman School of Management), including the U.S., the U.K., France, Singapore, Spain, China, India, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Australia, and Italy. Canada fares slightly better in The Economist MBA program rankings, with six Canadian business schools ranked in the 2012 top 100, placing Canada 3rd overall (tied with France), behind the U.S. and the U.K. Of the six Canadian schools identified in The Economist, three were also among the FT top 100,162: Schulich School of Business (York University) (placing 16th in The Economist's ranking), Desautels Faculty of Management (McGill University) (75th), and Sauder School of Business (University of British Columbia) (91st). There were also six Canadian business schools in the top 100 FT Executive MBA (EMBA) ranking for 2012,163 positioning Canada, once again, fourth (tied with France and Singapore), behind the U.S., the U.K. and China.

For those with a background in science or social science, entrepreneurship training with courses primarily focused on the assessment of business development needs, opportunity recognition, and problem solving can be an important part of developing talent with the right 'package' of skills so that they can commercialize their ideas more easily. A survey conducted by Industry Canada in 2009 on entrepreneurship education in Canadian universities and colleges164 found, however, that the majority of this type of programming was delivered at the undergraduate level and within the business (95 percent) and engineering (39 percent) subject areas.165 Entrepreneurship education by colleges and universities in Canada needs to be modernized, to expose students across all disciplines to the skills associated with entrepreneurship.

Work-Integrated Learning

Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) refers to student employment experiences that add practical, employment-based experience to classroom learning or programs of study. The integration of learning and work is garnering a great deal of interest internationally because of its value for both students and employers. Participation in these types of programs is associated with increased rates of school completion,166 and students have the opportunity to translate their knowledge from theory into practice, while learning valuable workplace skills. At the same time, businesses gain a competitive advantage by accessing research and high-quality talent with the skills they demand.

The impact of work-integrated learning was the focus of a 2011 exploratory study commissioned by the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO).167 When asked if they later hired students who had participated in a WIL program in their workplace, almost all the employers and community partners surveyed reported making job offers to WIL students, regardless of the type of WIL in which the students had participated. In making hiring decisions, the majority of employers and community partners reported looking for job applicants with WIL experience rather than job experience more broadly.

The absence of internationally comparable data constrains our ability to compare Canada's performance in work-integrated learning relative to peer countries. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that, while other economies are actively pursuing opportunities to systematically improve the integration of learning and work in order to drive growth, Canada lacks the type of concerted approach to WIL that would capitalize on the potential advantages to students and employers.

Looking at Canada, a 2011 survey of a select sample of Canadian students168 showed that, in terms of structured WIL opportunities, 16 percent had participated in a co-op program, 18 percent in an internship program and 17 percent in a research assistantship.

In 2006–07, there were approximately 80,000 co-op students enrolled in the programs of the members of the Canadian Association for Co-operative Education, representing approximately 6 percent of full-time students enrolled in universities and colleges across the country that school year.169 Canadian co-op programs are offered by colleges and universities. They are most common at the undergraduate level and relatively rare at the graduate level, except for those disciplines that mandate work experience prior to graduation as part of the requirements for membership in the profession.170


Federally Supported Internship Programs

The Government of Canada offers a number of internship programs that provide work-integrated learning opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. This suite of programs is aimed at creating opportunities for young talent, increasing the long-term uptake of highly qualified people by firms and strengthening STI capacity within the private sector.

Industrial Research and Development Internships The Government of Canada established the Industrial R&D Internships (IRDI) program through Budget 2007. The program places graduate students and post-doctoral fellows from any academic discipline in businesses that foster and use their talents. With an annual budget of $7 million to support up to 1,000 internships per year, the program is administered by the Networks of Centres of Excellence and delivered through third-party organizations (currently through the Mitacs Accelerate program (850 interns) and AUTO21's Connect Canada program (150 interns)).

Mitacs-Accelerate In addition to funding through the IRDI program, Mitacs receives support for its Accelerate program from a number of federal departments and agencies, including the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, Western Economic Diversification Canada, and the National Research Council–Industrial Research Assistance Program. In Budget 2012, the federal government announced an additional $14 million over two years to significantly increase the number of IRDI offered annually through Mitacs' Accelerate program.

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Internship Programs The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) offers a variety of internship programs focused on developing talent in the natural sciences and engineering.

The Industrial R&D Fellowships (IRDF) program provides financial contributions that support recent doctoral graduates to engage in R&D in the private sector for terms up to two years. In 2011–12, the IRDF program supported 275 fellowships.

The Industrial Postgraduate Scholarships (IPS) program provides financial support for graduates, allowing them to gain research experience in industry while undertaking graduate studies (either master's or doctoral) in Canada. The student spends a minimum of 20 percent of their time working at a company, on research related to their thesis. In 2011–12, the IPS program supported 398 awards.

The Industrial Undergraduate Student Research Awards (I-USRA) program provides 16-week internships for undergraduate students, who take on research projects in companies. In 2011–12, the I-USRA program supported 878 awards.

The Collaborative Research and Training Experience Program (CREATE)–Industrial Stream provides private sector internships for students and post-doctoral fellows that focus on developing skills that will be useful for the transition to the workplace, such as communication, collaboration and professional skills.

Co-op programs are particularly popular among college students, who are twice as likely as university students to participate in them.171 While co-op programs are increasingly being offered in a wide range of disciplines, including social sciences, health sciences and education, they are more concentrated in fields such as engineering, mathematics and business.172

Mobile Talent in a Global Economy

The search for the best talent is a race taking place at the global level. Competitive firms and institutions vie to attract the brightest people in their fields, from wherever they come. This talent is increasingly willing and able to relocate to take advantage of the opportunities and benefits an international career can bring. At the same time, governments throughout the world are developing programs to attract highly educated and highly skilled foreign talent.

Contributors to the 'Diplomacy of Knowledge'

A 2009 study conducted by the Canadian Bureau for International Education found that a majority of Canadian students understand the benefits of studying abroad.173 An international education helps Canadian students acquire a global perspective, thus preparing them to contribute to the “diplomacy of knowledge”174 and to understand and respond to the increasingly global marketplace. When returning to Canada, these students bring back knowledge, skills and networks that contribute to Canada's economy and society.

Despite increasing mobility, only 3.4 percent of Canadian university and college students were enrolled abroad in 2009.175 This places Canada near the middle of the pack when compared with other OECD countries. The U.S. was the primary target of Canadian students in 2009, with 29,209 students studying there, followed by the U.K. with 5,350, and Australia with 4,390.176 According to the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS), there were also roughly 3,500 Canadians enrolled in foreign medical schools in 2010.177

Statistics Canada data from 2005–06 (the most recent year for which such data are available) showed that 21 percent of doctoral graduates in Canada planned to live outside the country upon completion of their degree.178 Most of these students planned to move to the U.S., many of them in order to complete post-doctoral studies. Of the doctoral graduates from Canadian universities who were living in the U.S. in 2007, the highest proportions were in life sciences179 and computer, mathematics and physical sciences (all at 17 percent). It is also important to note that the majority (55 percent) of the graduates planning to live outside Canada also indicated that they planned to return to Canada to live and work in the future. Furthermore, two years following graduation, 24 percent of those who had left for the U.S. had subsequently returned to Canada, while the majority still in the U.S. continued to report their intention to return to Canada.

Attracting International Students to Canada

Just as there are benefits to having Canadian students study abroad, there are also advantages to attracting international students to Canada. In addition to the immediate economic benefits, international students, upon graduation, provide an educated talent pool for immigration to Canada, one with established Canadian credentials and work experience. Even if these students return to their home countries, their ties to Canada often mean they act like ambassadors, developing opportunities for enhanced research, trade and investment linkages, and generally raising Canada's profile abroad.

In 2010, 7 percent (or 95,590)180 of all university and college students in Canada were international students,181 placing Canada near the OECD average. It is interesting to note that this is double the proportion in the U.S. (at 3.4 percent); however, it is significantly lower than the proportion in key competitor countries such as Australia (21.2 percent), New Zealand (14.2 percent) and the U.K. (16.0 percent). Australia, with a population roughly 12 million less than that of Canada, hosted 271,231 international students at the college and university level, while New Zealand, with a population more than seven times smaller than that of Canada, hosted 37,878 international students at the college and university level. The U.K., with a population almost double that of Canada, hosted 397,741 international students at the college and university level, just over four times the number of international students hosted by Canada.

Despite Canada's modest performance in this area, it is interesting to note that international students are responsible for a significant part of the growth in science-based PhD enrolments in Canada. From 2000–01 to 2010–11, the growth rate in international students outstripped the growth rate by Canadian registrants in all of the science-based PhD programs (ranging from a 5 percent growth rate in international PhD students in health sciences to a 24 percent growth rate in architecture and engineering).182 Women accounted for an increasing share of the international students registered in science-based PhD programs in Canada. For example, of the 20,871 international PhD students enrolled in architecture and engineering between 2000–01 and 2010–11, women accounted for 3,792, an increase of 78.9 percent since 2000–01. Although this population is small overall, this trend is noteworthy.

Clearly many of the international students who come to Canada are interested in staying. In 2008, 33 percent of international students in Canada changed their immigration status to stay on in Canada, mostly for work purposes.183 This positioned Canada first among selected OECD countries on this measure.

Attracting Highly Educated Immigrants to Canada

Because a significant percentage of Canada's workforce growth now comes from immigration, economic drivers have assumed increasing significance in Canada's immigration policy, and the system is oriented towards attracting highly educated talent. Forty-five percent of the 1.9 million permanent residents (15 years of age or older) that were accepted into Canada from 2001 to 2010 had at least an undergraduate degree.


Leading-edge Water Research

Director of the Global Institute for Water Security and Canada Excellence Research Chair (CERC) in Water Security, Howard Wheater is one of the world's foremost hydrologists. He was recruited through the federal government's CERC program by the University of Saskatchewan in 2010, after 32 years at Imperial College London, in the United Kingdom.

Likening his role to that of a symphony conductor,1 Dr. Wheater leads the Institute's water-related research, which engages numerous faculty and government scientists as well as post-doctoral fellows and students from across multiple disciplines. One of Dr. Wheater's challenges is to bring together all of this talent in collaborative work at local, national and international levels and across broad research themes such as land and water management, sustainable resource development, climate change, human health and socio-hydrology.

The Institute—partnering with the Centre for Hydrology, Toxicology Centre, Canadian Light Source (Synchrotron), and several colleges, schools, and departments at the University of Saskatchewan—benefits from $30 million in joint federal-provincial-university funding over seven years. Current research aims to improve understanding of climate and environmental change in the Saskatchewan River Basin (home to important natural resources and 80 percent of Canada's agricultural production). Data collected by Dr. Wheater and his “orchestra” will be used to create improved modeling tools to develop better predictions of climate and land use change, improve land and water management practices and guide policy decisions.


1 Allan Casey, Water Music, Green and White (University of Saskatchewan, Winter 2011).

Figure 6-10 shows that, in 2009–10, as in 2000–01, among available OECD countries, Canada had the highest percentage of college and/or university-educated people in the foreign-born population (all age groups), with over 50 percent of the immigrant population having a college and/or university education. Canada was followed by the U.K. on this indicator, and then Ireland, Luxembourg and Australia.

Differences in immigration systems and policies constrain our ability to compare Canada's performance to that of other countries in terms of attracting highly educated talent.

To maximize the contribution of Canada's highly educated immigrant talent, it is important to ensure that these new immigrants are able to integrate into the Canadian labour market in areas where their skills can be used to best advantage. It is here that Canada must improve its performance. Evidence suggests that, while immigrants are able to obtain employment relatively rapidly in Canada, the quality of that employment at entry has deteriorated appreciably over the last few decades.184

TALENT DEPLOYMENT: MAKING THE MOST OF OUR TALENT

To be competitive, countries need to take advantage of their talent, to strategically maximize opportunities to create new knowledge and translate that knowledge into innovative products and processes. While there is growing demand for talent with university or college qualifications in Canada's economy, the country faces a number of challenges in fully absorbing and utilizing the knowledge and skills offered by Canada's highly educated talent.

Success in the Labour Market

The demand for, and supply of, labour in Canada's economy, as in other countries, is continually changing, responding to population changes, shifting markets, and the introduction of new technologies or advances in science, technology and innovation. The pace of this change can be rapid, while the development of new skills and knowledge typically has a longer time horizon. Matching the qualification and skills of the available talent pool (the supply) with those required in the labour market (the demand) of the 21st century knowledge economy is a complex and important challenge, particularly as global competition increases and rapid scientific and technological change intensifies. Measuring that match in Canada is important in order to know that the talent development and education investments this country is making are meaningful.

Making the Match: Canada's Absorption of its Well-Educated Workforce

Analysis of the capacity of Canada's economy to absorb and utilize the knowledge and skills of its talent supply points to the growing demand for, and increasing value of, the knowledge and qualifications associated with a college and/or university education.185 A 2009 report186 looked at the ability of Canada's university graduates to find employment related to their studies and found that: 64.9 percent of university graduates indicated that their job closely matched their education, while 22.5 percent said it was somewhat related, and 12.6 percent said it was not related at all. According to the same study,187 Canadian graduates in health sciences and education had the best chance of finding employment related to their studies, followed by graduates in math, computer and information sciences, and then graduates in business and engineering. This is not surprising, as these applied fields prepare students to work in specific occupations in the labour market. Also not surprising is that the majority of doctoral graduates were employed in educational services (mostly in universities).188 In most fields, this majority was significant, with the exception of engineering, where an almost equal proportion of graduates were employed in professional, scientific and technical services (Figure 6-11).

Qualifications gained through education are an important foundation for science, technology and innovation. Transforming people's ideas and knowledge into goods and services for today's global market requires talent with a wide range of skills and perspectives. That is why, in today's economy, companies are looking for talent not only with the right qualifications but also the right skills, including effective communications, creative problem solving, and collaborative decision-making skills.

Skill shortages happen when employers are unable to recruit employees with the skills they are looking for at the going rate of pay. Skill shortages can be both cyclical and structural. On the one hand, shortages occur in periods of rapid economic growth, when unemployment is low and the pool of available workers is reduced. On the other hand, some structural changes—such as the adoption of new technology—could require skills that are not immediately available in the labour market, creating shortages while wages adjust and the education system adapts.

Survey data from Manpower Group's 2012 Talent Shortage Survey,189 based on more than 38,000 employers in 41 countries and territories, showed that 25 percent of employers in Canada continue to have difficulty filling job vacancies (up from 21 percent in 2010 and down from 29 percent in 2011), compared to 34 percent globally and 41 percent in the Americas.190 Of those Canadian employers reporting difficulty filling vacancies, 41 percent cited “the lack of available applicants” as the most common reason (compared to 33 percent of global respondents). A roughly equal percentage (up from 22 percent in 2011) cited “lack of technical competencies/hard skills”—in particular, the lack of industry-specific qualifications in both professional (for example, engineers, technicians, information technology) and skilled trades categories. Skilled trades topped the list of jobs that employers are having difficulty filling in both the U.S. and Canada. Engineering jobs ranked as the second most difficult positions to fill, in Canada, the U.S., and globally.

Annual Canadian job vacancy data191 show that, in 2011, the mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction industries had the highest national vacancy rates, at 3.1 percent. Coinciding with the high world prices of oil and other commodities produced in Canada, this reflects a significant demand for talent in the skilled trades such as heavy-duty mechanics, welders, electricians, and petroleum technologists. Professional, scientific and technical services, as well as health care—two service industries that traditionally use highly qualified and highly skilled talent—had the next highest national vacancy rates (at 2.2 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively). The lowest national vacancy rates in 2011 were in management of companies (at 1.0 percent) and educational services (at 0.7 percent).

Deploying Canada's Science, Technology and Innovation Talent

Two of the most telling indicators of a country's ability to absorb and use its science, technology and innovation talent to best advantage are the share of human resources in science and technology (HRST) and the proportion of researchers employed in the private and public sectors. Canada's performance on both indicators continues to be disappointing.

Like most OECD countries, more of Canada's human resources in science and technology192 continue to be concentrated in the services sector than in the manufacturing sector, as reflected in Figure 6-12. In fact, in  Canada, growth in the share of HRST in services was almost four times greater than the growth in the share of HRST in manufacturing between 1998 and 2008. This, in part, reflects the shift in Canada's economy from manufacturing to services. Canada's HRST share of the services labour force, at 39 percent, sits in the middle of the pack among available OECD countries and behind the top five performers of Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Iceland and Norway. On manufacturing, the picture is far worse—the HRST share of the manufacturing labour force in Canada, at 11.5 percent, is among the lowest in the OECD, significantly behind the top five performers of France, Denmark, Switzerland, Finland and Belgium. This is yet another area where Canada must focus concerted attention to significantly improve performance, if we are to fully realize the potential of our strong talent base.


 

The HRST share of the manufacturing labour force in Canada is among the lowest in the OECD.

 

Looking at researchers specifically (defined as professionals engaged in the conception and creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, who are directly involved in the management of projects) in 2008, there were 5.2 researchers193 employed by the business sector in Canada for every 1,000 workers and 3.3 researchers employed by the combined government, university and college, and private non-profit sectors for every 1,000 workers (Figure 6-13). This places Canada slightly above the OECD averages of 4.81 and 2.74, respectively, but almost two researchers (per 1,000 workers) below the top five global leaders, including Iceland, Finland, Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden.

Gender Balance in Science, Technology and Innovation Leadership

Leaders play a critical role in creating an environment where those around them are encouraged to apply science, technology and innovative thinking to solve problems and develop new goods and services. Research has shown that there is a positive link between diversity in corporate leadership and firm performance, particularly in terms of financial performance, the ability to attract and retain talent, and increase STI.

The ethnic diversity of Canada's business sector in relation to other countries is difficult to assess, as few countries collect such data, with the exception of the U.S. and the U.K.194 However, internationally comparative data are available on gender diversity in the top ranks of Canada's business sector.

According to Catalyst's 'Women on Boards Around the World' (Figure 6-14),195 10.3 percent of board seats in Canada (public companies only) were held by women in 2011, while only 3.6 percent of chair positions (public and private companies listed on the Financial Post 500) were held by women. Compared to other available economies, this positions Canada in the middle of the pack on both measures, but significantly lagging key competitors such as the U.S.196 This finding is consistent with Governance Metrics International (GMI) annual rankings,197 which also positions Canada in the middle of competitor countries, but significantly lagging the top performers such as Norway, Sweden, Finland, the U.S. and South Africa. GMI looked at 134 prominent Canadian companies in 2011 and determined that 13.1 percent of their board members and 2.2 percent of their chairs were women. Canada needs to improve significantly in this regard.

At the same time, an estimated 36 percent of public and private sector managers in Canada were women in 2012.198 Looking more closely at the senior management ranks, this proportion falls to 27 percent.199 In comparison, in the U.S., in 2011, it was estimated that women comprised 39.1 percent of management positions and 24.2 of chief executive positions.200


137World Economic Forum (WEF), The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 and OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2012, 2012.

138OECD, Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators (2012), Chart C1.2, p. 321 and Table C1.2, p. 331. The reference year for data reported by most countries was 2010; however, the reference year for Canadian data was 2009.

139Data from Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey 2012 presented on the Indicators of Well-being in Canada website.

140OECD, PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science (Volume I) (2010): Figure I.2.16, Figure I.3.10 and Figure I.3.22.

141OECD, PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science (Volume I) (2010).

142The relationship between PISA reading literacy scores and subsequent life outcomes in Canada is documented in the OECD report Pathways to Success: How Knowledge and Skills at Age 15 Shape Future Lives in Canada. Tracking Canadian students who had taken part in the PISA 2000 reading assessment, the study found that, after adjusting for background variables such as parental, school, demographic and geographic factors, proficiency on the PISA reading literacy scale was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of continuing in education.

143For Canada, the point difference is 12 points in mathematics (the average for the OECD) compared to 20 points in the United States and the United Kingdom. There were 35 economies, including Canada, with an advantage for boys and 5 with an advantage for girls in math. Of the top 12 performing economies on the average math scale, only 3 had greater score point differences for boys (Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Hong Kong-China).

144 For Canada, the point difference is 5 points in science compared to 14 points in the United States and 9 points in the United Kingdom. There were 22 economies, including Canada, with an advantage for boys and 43 with an advantage for girls in science. In fact, Canada and Hong Kong-China were the only two economies amongst the top 8 performing economies where there was any advantage for boys on the average science scale. The other 6 all had advantages for girls on the average science scale.

145OECD, Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators (2012), Tables A4.2 and A4.3.

146Canadian Education Statistics Council, Education Indicators in Canada: Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program (Statistics Canada, May 2012): Table C.5.7.; Sources used were: Statistics Canada, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009 database; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2009 PISA database.

147This PISA 2009 index reflects a composite score based on 15-year-old students' responses when asked how frequently they perform the following nine activities: chat online; use email; browse the Internet for school work; download, upload or browse material from the school website; post work on the school's website; play simulations; practice and do drills (e.g., for mathematics or learning a foreign language); do individual homework; and do group work and communicate with other students.

148Uruguay's Plan Ceibal was launched in 2008 with the goal of providing every grade school student and teacher in Uruguay with a laptop connected to the Internet. In 2011, the program was expanded to introduce laptops into nursery schools. This program has been very successful and widely recognized as a world-leading best practice, in part because it is complemented by an educational plan for teachers, students and their families. South Korea will digitize its entire elementary-level educational textbooks and materials by 2014. By 2015, the entire school-age curriculum will be available on computers, smartphones, and tablets. In a 2009 PISA test, Korean students ranked first out of 19 countries on digital literacy (Canada was not among the countries evaluated in this test). A Strategy for American Innovation outlined the Obama Administration's Educate to Innovate campaign that seeks to harness public-private partnerships to improve K-12 education in part through digital technology.

149International Telecommunications Union, Measuring the Information Society 2011, Geneva (2011) Tables 2.7, 2.9 and 2.11.

150Calista Cheung, et al., “Tertiary Education: Developing Skills for Innovation and Long-Term Growth in Canada,” OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 991 (2012), p. 7.

151OECD, Education at a Glance 2012 (2012): Table A1.3a.

152 It should be noted that there is significant variability year-to-year in the Post-Secondary Student Information System (PSIS) data reported in CANSIM, due to methodological changes. For example, PSIS changed its counts of enrolments and graduations in 2009–10, particularly at the college level. Thus these data should be interpreted with some caution. This applies to all PSIS data used in this report.

153STIC tabulation using data extracted from OECD.stat on August 2012; Dataset: Graduates by field of study.

154Life sciences are largely biological and biomedical sciences, as defined in the Classification of Instructional Programs—Primary Groupings. In contrast, health fields are largely health professions (dentistry, medicine, veterinary medicine) and related clinical sciences.

155Statistics Canada: Post-Secondary Student Information System, CANSIM Table 477-0019, accessed February 2013.

156Advanced research refers to Level 6 of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997). This level is reserved for tertiary programs, which lead to the award of an advanced research qualification. The programs are therefore devoted to advanced study and original research and are not based on coursework only. Programs at this level typically require the submission of a thesis or dissertation of publishable quality, which is the product of original research and represents a significant contribution to knowledge. They also prepare graduates for faculty posts in institutions offering ISCED 5A programs (undergraduate), as well as research posts in government, industry, etc.

157STIC tabulations based on data from OECD, Graduates by field of study (December 2012).

158Statistics Canada: Post-Secondary Student Information System, CANSIM Table 477-0019, accessed February 2013.

159As defined by the National Occupational Classification 2006 structure, generally speaking, senior managers develop and establish objectives for an organization and develop or approve policies and programs. They plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the operations of their organization in relation to established objectives.

160The Financial Times of London annual global survey of business schools takes into account 21 measures across a number of categories, including graduate salary and career progress, international student and faculty counts, and faculty research. For The Economist's MBA rankings, business schools are ranked according to the three-year average of 13 measures falling under four categories, including new career opportunities, personal development/education experience, increased salary and potential to network.

161These Canadian schools were: Rotman School of Management (University of Toronto) (at 44th); Schulich School of Business (York University) (59th); Desautels Faculty of Management (McGill University) (61st); Richard Ivey School of Business (University of Western Ontario)(68th); and the Sauder School of Business (University of British Columbia) (82nd).

162The other three Canadian business schools that made The Economist's top 100 list included: John Molson School of Business (Concordia University) (78th); École des Hautes Études Commerciales (HEC) Montréal (93rd); and the Haskayne School of Business (University of Calgary) (95th).

163These Canadian schools were: Kellogg-Schulich (York University) (at 27th); Rotman School of Management (University of Toronto) (29th); Richard Ivey School of Business (University of Western Ontario) (43rd); a joint EMBA program between the Johnson School of Business and Queen's School of Business (Cornell University/Queen's University) (45th); the Queen's School of Business itself (Queen's University) (92nd); and the Haskayne School of Business (a joint EMBA program between the University of Calgary and University of Alberta) (99th).

164Industry Canada, The Teaching and Practice of Entrepreneurship within Canadian Higher Education Institutions, Canada (2010), p. 10.

165This is consistent with the 2000 National Graduate Survey data of Statistics Canada.

166Canadian Council on Learning, The Impact of Experiential Learning on Student Success, Ottawa (2009).

167P. Sattler, Work-Integrated Learning in Ontario's Postsecondary Sector, Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (2011), p. 8.

168Miriam Kramer and Alex Usher, Work-Integrated Learning and Career-Ready Students: Examining the Evidence, Toronto: Higher Education Strategy Associates (2011), p. 7.

169There were 1,255,761 full-time students enrolled in post-secondary education in Canada in the 2006–07 school year, as reported by Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 477-0019 (Post-Secondary Student Information System).

170Rowe, Patricia, Survey of Graduate Programs with Cooperative and Internship Options in Canadian Universities: Initial report of a study of graduate co-operative education in Canada (University of Waterloo, Centre for the Advancement of Co-operative Education).

171David Walters and David Zarifa, “The earnings and employment outcomes for male and female postsecondary graduates of coop and non-coop programs,” Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60 (4): pp. 377–399.

172David Walters and David Zarifa, “The earnings and employment outcomes for male and female postsecondary graduates of coop and non-coop programs,” Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60 (4): pp. 377–399.

173Dr. Sheryl Bond, World of Learning: Canadian Post-Secondary Students and the Study Abroad Experience, Canadian Bureau for International Education (2009).

174The Governor General of Canada, His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston, defined the diplomacy of knowledge as “our ability and willingness to work together and share the knowledge we uncover and refine across disciplines and across borders to improve the human condition together” (from the Opening Address to the Conference of the Americas on International Education in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 26, 2012).

175OECD, Education at a Glance 2012 (2012), Table C4.5.

176OECD, Foreign/International Students Enrolled (October 2012). Followed by Ireland with 594, Germany with 546, New Zealand with 419, Switzerland with 378, and Sweden with 254 (no data were available for Canadian students in France and non-OECD countries).

177Canadian Residence Matching Service, Canadian Students Studying Medicine Abroad (2010), p. 6.

178Darren King, et al., Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006, Ottawa, Statistics Canada and Human Resources and Social Development Canada (2008), p. 35.

179Agricultural sciences, biological sciences and health sciences included.

180OECD, Foreign/International Students Enrolled, October (2012).

181OECD, Education at a Glance 2012 (2012), Table C4.1. The OECD differentiates between non-citizen students (foreign students) and non-resident students (international students). Non-resident/international students are generally labelled as such if they “left their country of origin and moved to another country for the purpose of study.” Meanwhile, foreign students/non-citizen students are labelled as such “if they are not citizens of the country in which the data are collected.” The 'international student' data are considered more useful than 'foreign student' data. For example, in some countries, many second-generation immigrant students are still labelled as foreign students due to the country's naturalization policies.

182STIC calculations based on data extracted from Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 477-0019 (October 2012).

183OECD, International Migration Outlook 2011 (2011), Figure I.8.

184Garnett Picot and Arthur Sweetman, “Making It in Canada: Immigration Outcomes and Policies,” IRPP Study, No. 29 (April 2012). Male immigrants entering Canada from 1976 to 2005 attained employment parity with Canadian-born men after approximately five years (the picture for women generally tracks that of men). When male immigrants are compared with Canadian-born men with similar characteristics (such as education, age and marital status), the cohort entering during the late 1970s had annual earnings that were roughly 85 percent of those of their Canadian-born counterparts during the first five years in Canada. For the cohort of men entering during the early 1990s, this figure had fallen to 60 percent.

185Kevin Stolarick, The Changing Returns to Education in Canada and its Provinces: 1971–2006, Martin Prosperity Institute Working Paper, Toronto: Martin Prosperity Institute (January 2012).

186Brahim Boudarbat and Victor Chernoff, The Determinants of Education-Job Match among Canadian University Graduates, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit/Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper No. 4513 (October 2009), p. 11.

187Brahim Boudarbat and Victor Chernoff, The Determinants of Education-Job Match among Canadian University Graduates, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit/Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper No. 4513 (October 2009), p. 13.

188Louise Desjardins and Darren King, Expectations and Labour Market Outcomes of Doctoral Graduates from Canadian Universities, Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics Research Paper (January 2011), p. 33.

189Manpower Group, 2012 Talent Shortage Survey Research Results (2012).

190Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru and the U.S.

191Statistics Canada, Job Vacancy Statistics (2011).

192Human resources in science and technology are defined according to the Canberra Manual (OECD and Eurostat, 1995) as persons having graduated at the tertiary level of education in a science and technology field or employed in a science and technology occupation for which a high qualification is normally required and the innovation potential is high. To classify occupations, the OECD uses ISCO Group 2 (Professionals) including physical, mathematical and engineering science professionals; life science and health professionals; teaching professionals; and other professionals as well as ISCO Group 3 (Technicians and associate professionals) including physical and engineering science associate professionals; life science and health associate professionals; teaching associate professionals; other associate professionals.

193The number of researchers is expressed in full-time equivalent (FTE) units. A person working half-time on R&D is counted as 0.5 person year in FTE. FTE refers to staff engaged in R&D during the course of a given year. FTE data are a more accurate measure of the volume of research conducted by a country's researchers. Researchers are shown relative to total employment in the OECD National Accounts. Employment in industry excludes persons engaged in real estate, public administration and defence, education, health and social work and private households.

194Forbes Insights. Diversity and Inclusion: Unlocking Potential – Global Diversity Rankings by Country, Sector and Occupation, Forbes (January 2012), p. 18.

195Data compiled by STIC using Catalyst, Women on Boards Around the World.

196Catalyst's figures are based on their own internal research, Governance Metrics International's 2012 Women on Boards Survey, and various national studies where deemed appropriate. Catalyst explains that their 'board seats held by women' figure for Canada is derived from public companies only rather than public and private companies listed on the Financial Post 500 as it is more in line with the other figures in their chart. Meanwhile their figure for women chairs was derived from their '2011 Catalyst Census: Financial Post 500 Women Board Directors' study.

197Kimberly Gladman and Michelle Lamb, GMI Ratings' 2012: Women on Boards Survey, Governance Metrics International (GMI) (March 2012). GMI's survey includes data from over 4,300 international companies largely relying on market indices.

198Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 282-0010 (Labour force survey estimates (LFS) (February 2013)).

199Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 282-0010 (Labour force survey estimates (LFS) (February 2013)).

200U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 11: Employed Persons by Detailed Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity, Annual Averages 2011 (2012).