Chapter 3 Long Descriptions

Figure 3-1: Total Research and Development Funding in Canada, 1990–2012

This vertical bar and line graph compares total research and development funding in Canada in billions of dollars and as a percentage of gross domestic product from 1990 to 2012. There has been a steady increase in total research and development funding starting from $10.3 billion in 1990, peaking at $30.8 billion in 2008 and declining to $30.0 billion in 2012. Total research and development funding as a percentage of gross domestic product started at 1.5 percent in 1990, peaked at 2.1 percent in 2001 and declined to 1.7 percent in 2011. There are no data on total research and development funding as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2012.

Figure 3-2: Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2006, 2008 and 2011

This vertical bar graph compares gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2006, 2008 and 2011 in 41 economies. Israel had the highest gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 4.38 percent in 2011, followed by Finland at 3.78 percent and Korea at 3.74 percent. Canada was 23rd out of the 41 countries studied at 1.74 percent, down from 2.00 percent in 2006. The country with the lowest gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product was Chile at 0.42 percent in 2011. The top five threshold average for 2011 was 3.26 percent.

Figure 3-3: Sources of Research and Development Funding in Canada, 1990-2012

This line graph compares six sources of research and development funding in Canada from 1990 to 2012. With the exception of a few years, business enterprises steadily increased funding of research and development starting at $3.96 billion in 1990, peaking at $15.21 billion in 2008 and declining to $14.07 billion in 2012. A distant second was federal government funding of research and development starting at $2.86 billion in 1990, peaking at $6.46 billion in 2010 and declining to $5.84 billion in 2012. Private non-profit was the lowest source of research and development funding, but did increase funding from $0.23 billion in 1990 to $1.08 billion in 2012.

Figure 3-4: Sources of Research and Development Funding in Canada, as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 1990-2011

This line graph compares six sources of research and development funding in Canada as a percentage of gross domestic product from 1990 to 2011. With the exception of a few years, business enterprises steadily increased funding of research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product starting at 0.58 percent in 1990, peaking at 1.05 percent in 2001 and 2002, and declining to 0.81 percent in 2011. A distant second was federal government funding of research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product starting at 0.42 percent in 1990, rising and falling until reaching 0.40 percent in 2010, and declining to 0.35 percent in 2011. Private non-profit was the lowest source of research and development funding as a percentage of gross domestic product, but did increase funding from 0.03 percent in 1990 to 0.06 percent in 2011.

Figure 3-5: Research and Development Performed in Canada, 1990-2012

This line graph compares six sources of research and development performed in Canada in billions of dollars from 1990 to 2012. With the exception of a few years, business enterprises steadily increased research and development performed starting at $5.2 billion in 1990, peaking at $16.8 billion in 2007 and declining to $15.5 billion in 2012. The federal government was next starting at $3.0 billion in 1990 and steadily increasing to $11.5 billion in 2012.

Figure 3-6: Government Funded Research and Development, as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2006, 2008 and 2010

This vertical bar graph compares government funded research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2006, 2008 and 2010 in 41 economies. Austria had the highest government funded research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 1.08 percent in 2010, followed by Iceland at 1.03 percent, and Finland and Korea at 1.00 percent. Canada was 19th out of the 41 countries studied at 0.67 percent. The country with the lowest government funded research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product was Chile at 0.16 percent. The top five threshold average for 2010 was 0.99 percent.

Figure 3-7: Federal Government Funding of Research and Development, to Performing Sectors, 1990-2012

This line graph compares federal government funding of research and development to six performing sectors. Despite coming in a distant second in 1990 at $0.78 billion, the federal government provided the most funding to higher education for research and development in 2012 at $3.0 billion. The federal government received $1.65 billion in 1990 and rose to $2.40 billion in 2012. Private non-profit received little funding for research and development most years, with a few exceptions, which saw $0.03 to $0.05 billion in funding. Provincial research organizations received essentially no funding during this time.

Figure 3-8: Indirect Government Support of Business Research and Development, as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2010

This vertical bar graph compares indirect government support of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2010 in 30 countries. France had the highest indirect government support of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 0.26 percent, followed by Canada at 0.21 percent. The bottom 10 of the 30 countries studied received no indirect government support of business research and development. Apart from these 10 countries, South Africa received the least indirect government support of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 0.013 percent. The top five threshold average for 2010 was 0.14 percent.

Figure 3-9: Direct Government Support of Business Research and Development, as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2010

This vertical bar graph compares direct government support of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2010 in 30 countries. The United States had the highest direct government support of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 0.29 percent. The country receiving the least direct government support of business research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product was Chile at 0.003 percent. Canada was 26th out of the 30 countries studied at 0.03 percent. The top five threshold average for 2010 was 0.15 percent.

Figure 3-10: Total Expenditures of Select Provincial Governments on Research and Development, 2006-07 to 2010-11

This line graph compares the total expenditures of select provincial governments on research and development for 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 in millions of dollars. Quebec and Ontario had the highest total expenditures over this time span. Quebec started lower than Ontario in 2006-2007 with $456 million, increasing to $572 million in 2010-2011. Ontario started at close to $549 million in 2006-2007, but declined to about $451 million by 2010-2011. Prince Edward Island had the lowest expenditures on research and development in 2010-2011 at $9.7 million.

Figure 3-11: Percentage of Total Expenditures of Select Provincial Governments and the Federal Government on Research and Development, by Objective, 2010-11

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of total expenditures of select provincial governments and the federal government on research and development, by objective, for 2010-2011. Basic research had the highest percentage of total expenditures at 45.9 percent in British Columbia, followed by Ontario at 30.5 percent. Protection and improvement of human health was the next highest objective, again in British Columbia at 34.3 percent, followed by Ontario at 30.1 percent. None of the select provincial governments devoted any expenditures toward defence.

Figure 3-12: Business Enterprise-Financed Research and Development, as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2006, 2008 and 2011

This vertical bar graph compares business enterprise-financed research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2006, 2008 and 2011 in 41 economies. Korea had the highest business enterprise-financed research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 2.68 percent, followed by Finland at 2.53 percent and Japan at 2.47 percent. Canada was 23rd out of the 41 countries studied at 0.81 percent. Argentina had the lowest business enterprise-financed research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product at 0.14 percent. The top five threshold for 2011 was 1.96 percent.

Figure 3-13: Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development Funding by Business Enterprises in Canada, 1990-2012

This line graph compares gross domestic expenditure on research and development funding by business enterprises in Canada by industry-funded gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product and as a percentage of gross domestic expenditure on research and development funding by industry. In 1990, industry-funded gross domestic expenditure on research and development as a percentage of gross domestic product was 0.58 percent, peaking in 2001 and 2002 at 1.05 percent, and declining to 0.81 percent in 2011. The percentage of gross domestic expenditure on research and development funding by industry in 1990 was 38.6 percent, rising to 51.5 percent in 2002 and declining to 46.8 percent in 2012.

Figure 3-14: Business Enterprise Expenditure on Research and Development, Higher Education Expenditure on Research and Development, Government Intramural Expenditure on Research and Development Financed by Industry, as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2011

This vertical bar graph compares business enterprise expenditure on research and development, higher education expenditure on research and development, and government intramural expenditure on research and development financed by industry as a percentage of gross domestic product in 2011 in 40 economies. For business enterprise expenditure on research and development financed by industry as a percentage of gross domestic product, Korea was highest at 2.60 percent, followed by Finland at 2.46 percent and Japan at 2.45 percent. Of the 40 countries, Canada was 22nd at 0.75 percent. For higher education expenditure on research and development financed by industry as a percentage of gross domestic product, Iceland was highest at 0.09 percent. Canada was at 0.05 percent.  For government intramural expenditure on research and development financed by industry as a percentage of gross domestic product, the Netherlands was highest at 0.08 percent. Canada was at 0.01 percent. The top five threshold was 1.96 percent.