Chapter 5 Long Descriptions

Figure 5-1: Higher Education Performance of Research and Development, 1990-2012

This vertical bar and line graph compares research and development performed by the higher education sector and performed as a percentage of gross domestic product. In 1990, research and development performed by the higher education sector amounted to $3.03 billion, increasing steadily to $11.53 billion in 2012. Research and development performance by the higher education sector as a percentage of gross domestic product went from 0.45 percent in 1990 to 0.70 percent in 2010 and declined slightly to 0.66 percent in 2011.

Figure 5-2: Research and Development by the Higher Education Sector as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2006, 2008 and 2011

This vertical bar graph compares research and development performed by the higher education sector as a percentage of gross domestic product for 2006, 2008 and 2011. Of 41 economies, Denmark was highest in 2011 at 0.92 percent, followed by Sweden at 0.88 percent and Switzerland at 0.77 percent. Canada was ninth out of the 41 countries studied at 0.66 percent. The Russian Federation was last at 0.10 percent. The top five threshold for 2011 was 0.75 percent.

Figure 5-3: Business-Financed Research and Development Performed by the Higher Education Sector, 1990 to 2012

This line graph compares the value and percentage of business-financed research and development performed by the higher education sector for 1990 to 2012. The value of business funding of research and development to the higher education sector rose from $151 million in 1990 to $896 million in 2009 and dropped to $863 million in 2012. The percentage of business funding to the higher education sector went from 3.8 percent in 1990 to 6.6 percent in 1992. It fluctuated over the years, but never reached the gains made in 1992. In 2012, the percentage of business funding to the higher education sector was 6.1 percent.

Figure 5-4: Canadian and United States Licensing Activities, 2009 and 2011

This vertical bar graph compares licensing activities in Canada and the United States by examining new and active income for 2009 and 2011. Of the approximately 40 responding institutions in Canada, there were 578 new licensing activities in 2011, down from 690 in 2009. There were 3,428 active licensing activities in 2011, up from 3,144 in 2009. Income from activities was $59.7 million in 2009 compared with $65.9 million in 2011. Of the approximately 185 responding institutions in the United States, there were 6,051 new licensing activities in 2011, up from 5,328 in 2009. There were 38,600 active licensing activities in 2011, up from 33,523 in 2009. Income from licensing activities in 2009 was US$2.33 billion compared with US$2.46 billion in 2011.

Figure 5-5: Canadian Universities’ Yearly Average of New Spinoffs

This vertical bar graph compares Canadian universities’ yearly average of new spinoffs from 1980 to 2008. The yearly average between 1980 and 1984 was 13; between 1985 and 1989, it was 18. Between 1990 and 1994, the yearly average of new spinoffs grew to 36 and between 1995 and 1999 the number increased to 72. There was a slight decrease between 2000 and 2004 to 62, followed by a further decrease between 2005 and 2006 to 36.