Chapter 6 Long Descriptions

Figure 6-1: Percentage of 25-64 Year-Old Population with a College or University Education, 2010

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of the 25-64 year-old population with a college or university education (all levels) in 2010. Of the 29 countries studied, Canada was highest at 50 percent, 24 percent of which had a college education and 26 percent a university education. Israel was next at 46 percent, with 15 percent of the 25-64 year-old population with a college education and 31 percent with a university education. Japan was third at 45 percent, 19 percent with a college education and 25 percent with a university education. The Slovak Republic was lowest at 18 percent, one percent with a college education and 17 percent with a university education. The top five threshold was 41 percent.

Figure 6-2: Annual Number of Persons Graduated from Canadian Colleges, by Field of Study, 2000 to 2011

This line chart compares the annual number of persons graduated from Canadian colleges, in 11 fields of study, from 2000 to 2011. Business, management and public administration increased from 10,059 graduates in 2000-01 to 21,045 in 2010-11. All but one field of study saw an increase between 2000 and 2011, with mathematics, computer and information sciences decreasing from 3,180 graduates in 2000-01 to 2,778 in 2010-11. Physical and life sciences and technologies had the fewest graduates, but did increase over the period from 651 graduates in 2000-01 to 1,059 in 2010-11.

Figure 6-3: Percentage of University Graduates (All Levels), by Field of Study, Against Comparator Countries, 2010

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of university graduates (all levels) in 15 fields of study against comparator countries in 2010. Canada had a higher percentage of graduates against comparator countries in five out of the 15 fields of study. Canada’s highest percentage of graduates was in business and administration at 17.95 percent against 18.37 percent in comparator countries. Social and behavioural science was next at 14.88 percent in Canada against 9.36 percent in comparator countries. Humanities and arts followed next at 12.37 percent in Canada against 11.19 percent in comparator countries. Manufacturing and processing had Canada’s lowest percentage of university graduates at 0.19 percent against 1.16 percent in comparator countries.

Figure 6-4: Annual Number of Persons Graduated from Canadian University Undergraduate and Master’s Science, Engineering, Math, Computer, Information Sciences and Related Programs, 2000-11

This line graph compares the annual number of persons graduated from Canadian university undergraduate and master’s science, engineering, math, computer, information sciences and related programs from 2000 to 2011. Of the five fields of study, health and related fields saw the highest increase going from 14,847 graduates in 2000-01 to 27,948 in 2010-11. Architecture, engineering and related technologies rose from 12,258 graduates in 2000-01 to 18,081 in 2010-11. Agriculture, natural resources and conservation had the fewest graduates, remaining fairly stable at 3,246 graduates in 2000 and 3,522 in 2011.

Figure 6-5: Graduates at the Doctoral (Advanced Research) Level in 2010 (per 100,000 Population)

This vertical bar graph compares graduates at the doctoral (advanced research) level in 2010 per 100,000 population in 26 countries. Canada had 15.9 doctoral graduates per 100,000 population in 2010, 52 percent of whom were women. Canada ranked 21st out of the 26 countries studied. The Slovak Republic ranked first with 53.0 doctoral graduates per 100,000 population, followed by Switzerland with 48.6 and Sweden with 35.9. The top five threshold was 31.8.

Figure 6-6: Science and Engineering Graduates at the Doctoral Level, per 100,000 Population, 2010

This vertical bar graph compares science and engineering graduates at the doctoral level, per 100,000 population, for 2010 in 26 countries. Canada ranked 15th out of the 26 countries studied with 5.7 science graduates per 100,000 population and 3.0 engineering graduates, with 34 percent of the graduates being women. The Slovak Republic had the highest number of graduates per 100,000 population at 8.6 science graduates and 10.4 engineering graduates, 39 percent of whom were women. Mexico had the fewest graduates per 100,000 population at 0.8 science graduates and 0.4 engineering graduates, 41 percent of whom were women. The top five threshold was 13.5.

Figure 6-7: Graduates in Doctoral (Advanced Research) Science, Engineering and All Fields of Study for 2010 (for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Countries, by Gender and per 100,000 Population); and Percentage Change from 2006 to 2010

Graduates in Doctoral (Advanced Research) Science, Engineering, and All Fields of Study for 2010 (for OECD countries, by gender and per 100,000 population); and percentage change from 2006 to 2010
Science Engineering All Fields of Study
Science PhD Graduates 2010 Growth from 2006 to 2010 Science PhD Graduates, Number per 100,000 Population 2010 Science PhD Graduates as a Percentage of all PhD Graduates 2010 Engineering PhD Graduates 2010 Growth from 2006 to 2010 Engineering PhD Graduates, Number per 100,000 Population 2010 Engineering PhD Graduates as a Percentage of all PhD Graduates 2010 Total Number of PhD Graduates 2010 Growth from 2006 to 2010 PhD Graduates, Number per 100,000 Population 2010
United States 15,920 18.5 5.2 22.9 7,981 3.9 2.6 11.5 69,570 19.4 22.5
Germany 7,654 17.0 9.3 29.4 2,514 13.0 3.1 9.7 26,039 4.2 31.8
United Kingdom 5,539 7.3 9.0 29.5 2770 13.5 4.5 14.8 18,756 12.2 30.6
Japan 2,458 -6.4 1.9 15.5 3,569 -3.1 2.8 22.5 15,867 -0.7 12.4
Korea 1,095 9.6 2.2 10.4 2,506 9.5 5.0 23.8 10,542 17.9 20.9
Spain 2,405 8.4 5.2 27.7 1,296 59.0 2.8 14.9 8,696 17.7 18.9
Australia 1,498 13.8 6.7 25.7 779 6.7 3.5 13.4 5,825 9.4 26.1
Canada 1,928 48.7 5.7 35.6 1,036 38.6 3.0 19.1 5,416 22.5 15.9
Turkey 852 53.4 1.2 18.2 693 46.6 1.0 14.8 4,684 44.6 6.4
Mexico 916 42.6 0.8 22.0 407 38.6 0.4 9.8 4,167 32.8 3.8
Switzerland 1,025 -5.7 13.1 27.0 438 14.2 5.6 11.5 3,800 11.0 48.6
Netherlands 626 23.5 3.8 16.8 709 24.5 4.3 19.0 3,736 19.9 22.6
Sweden 779 -9.8 8.3 23.1 843 -35.1 9.0 25.0 3,371 -12.2 35.9
Portugal 449 -219.6 4.2 15.3 399 -80.7 3.8 13.6 2,927 -82.5 27.5
Slovak Republic 469 54.8 8.6 16.3 564 61.0 10.4 19.6 2,878 57.7 53.0
Austria 592 19.6 7.1 23.7 461 6.1 5.5 18.4 2,500 13.7 29.8
Czech Republic 661 26.9 6.3 29.7 449 -15.4 4.3 20.2 2,228 9.2 21.2
Belgium 476 -17.4 4.4 22.4 501 42.9 4.6 23.6 2,126 19.2 19.7
Greece 411 30.2 3.6 21.7 361 35.7 3.2 19.1 1,892 -28.8 16.8
Finland 328 -26.8 6.1 18.7 374 -11.5 7.0 21.4 1,750 -8.5 32.6
Denmark 261 36.4 4.7 18.8 333 30.6 6.0 24.0 1,388 34.4 25.0
Hungary 396 54.3 4.0 31.1 100 48.0 1.0 7.8 1,275 20.6 12.8
Ireland 436 6.0 9.8 35.7 182 14.8 4.1 14.9 1,222 19.9 27.3
Norway 432 44.0 8.8 35.9 6 -1516.7 0.1 0.5 1,202 26.6 24.6
New Zealand 307 31.9 7.0 31.1 94 45.7 2.2 9.5 987 35.4 22.6
Iceland 19 73.7 6.0 52.8 6 66.7 1.9 16.7 36 58.3 11.3

Source: OECD,Graduates by field of study, December 2012.

Figure 6-8: Annual Number of Persons Graduated from Canadian University Doctoral Science, Engineering, Math, Computer, Information Sciences and Related Programs, 2000-11

This line graph compares the annual number of persons graduated from Canadian university doctoral science, engineering, math, computer, information sciences and related programs from 2000 to 2011. Physical and life sciences and technologies had the highest annual number of persons graduated with 993 in 2000-01, increasing to 1,581 in 2010-11. Architecture, engineering and related technologies was second with 564 graduates in 2000-01 and 1,107 in 2010-11. All of the programs compared saw an increase in the annual number of persons graduated from 2000 to 2011. Agriculture, natural resources and conservation had the fewest graduates with 168 in 2000-01 and 198 in 2010-11.

Figure 6-9: Educational Attainment of Managers (25 to 64 Years Old), Canada and the United States, 2006 to 2009 Average

This vertical bar graph compares the average educational attainment of managers (25 to 64 years old) from 2006 to 2009 in Canada and the United States. Canada had more managers with some post-secondary and/or college education at 39.5 percent compared with 25.1 percent in the United States. Only 25.0 percent of managers in Canada had undergraduate degrees, however, compared with 35.2 percent in the United States. Only 12 percent of Canadian managers have graduate and/or doctoral degrees, compared to 19 percent of American managers. In Canada, 6.5 percent of managers had less than a secondary education compared with 2.6 percent in the United States.

Figure 6-10: Percentage of University and College-Educated in the Foreign-Born Population, 2000 and 2010

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of university and college-educated in the foreign-born population in 2000 and 2010. Of the 30 countries studied, Canada ranked first with 42.5 percent of the foreign-born population with a university and college education in 2000-01 and 52.1 percent in 2009-10. The United Kingdom was second with 36.7 percent of the foreign-born population with a university and college education in 2000-01 and 47.3 percent in 2009-10. Italy was last of the 30 countries studied with 11.3 percent of the foreign-born population with a university and college education in 2000-01 and 11.0 percent in 2009-10. The top five threshold was 38.1 percent.

Figure 6-11: Distribution of Doctoral Graduates by Fields of Study and Industry of Employment

Distribution of Doctoral Graduates by Fields of Study and Industry of Employment
  Manufacturing Professional, scientific and technical services Educational services Health care and social assistance Public Administration
  Percentage
All fields of study 4 13 56 13 7
   Life sciences 4 14 51 19 8
   Engineering 13 31 34 x 9
   Computers,mathematics and physical sciences 7 18 56 4 7
   Psychology and social sciences x 5 54 28 9
   Humanities x 4 77 2 3
   Education and other fields x 7 76 6 5

x - suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Note: Excludes unpaid workers, respondents still taking education credits and those outside the labour force.

Source: Statistics Canada, National Graduates Survey (Class of 2005) (Figure reproduced from Desjardins, Louise and Darren King, Expectations and Labour Market Outcomes of Doctoral Graudates from Canadian Universities, Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics Research Paper, January 2011).

Figure 6-12: Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST) Employees by Industry Sector (as a Percentage of all Employees in the Manufacturing and Services Industries), 2008

This vertical bar graph compares human resources in science and technology (HRST) employees by industry sector as a percentage of all employees in the manufacturing and services industries in 2008. Of the 27 countries studied, France had the highest percentage of human resources in science and technology employees as a percentage of all employees in the manufacturing industry at 31.6 percent, followed by Denmark at 30.8 percent. Canada had 11.5 percent and Japan was the lowest at 6.9 percent. The top five threshold in manufacturing was 26.2 percent. Luxembourg had the highest percentage of human resources in science and technology employees as a percentage of all employees in the services industry at 46.8 percent, followed by Switzerland at 46.5 percent. Canada had 39.0 percent and Japan was the lowest at 19.3 percent. The top five threshold in services was 43.4 percent.

Figure 6-13: Researchers by Research and Development Performing Sector, 2009

This vertical bar graph compares researchers by research and development performing sector per 1,000 total employment in 2009 in 36 countries. Iceland had the most researchers in the combined government, higher education and non-profit, and business sectors with 17.0 per 1,000 total employment, followed by Finland with 16.6 and Denmark with 12.2. Canada ranked 12th out of the 36 countries studied with a combined total of 8.5 researchers per 1,000 total employment. Mexico had the fewest combined researchers with 0.8 per 1,000 total employment.

Figure 6-14: Percentage of Board Seats Held by Women and Percentage of Chair Positions Held by Women, 2011

This vertical bar graph compares the percentage of board seats held by women and the percentage of chair positions held by women in 34 countries in 2011. In Norway, 40.1 percent of board seats were held by women in 2011, the percent of chair positions held by women was not available for Norway. Sweden was next with 27.3 percent of board seats held by women, followed by Finland with 24.5 percent. Canada ranked 14th out of the 34 countries studied with 10.3 percent of board seats held by women. Japan was last with 0.9 percent of board seats held by women. Turkey had the highest percentage of chair positions held by women at 11.1 percent. In Canada, 3.6 percent of chair positions were held by women in 2011. The top five threshold of board sets held by women was 15.8 percent.