Chapters 1 & 2 Long Descriptions

Description of Figure 1-1

Aspirational Indicators (in percentage of top five threshold)
Value Country Percentage
Business enterprise expenditures on R&D as a share of GDP (BERD intensity) Leader 152.51
Canada 35.89
ICT investment as a share of GDP (ICT investment intensity) Leader 126.00
Canada 71.00
S&T-related occupations as a share of total employment Leader 144.70
Canada 77.52
Higher education expenditures on R&D as a share of GDP (HERD intensity) Leader 131.08
Canada 87.84
Number of doctoral degrees granted in science and engineering per 100,000 population Leader 144.67
Canada 70.43

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Description of Figure 2-1

BERD as a Percentage of GDP, 2006 and 2013
Country 2006 2013
Israel 3.43 3.49
Korea 2.19 3.26
Japan 2.63 2.65
Chinese Taipei 1.69 2.36
Finland 2.38 2.29
Sweden 2.61 2.28
Switzerland (2004, 2012) 1.97 2.05
Denmark 1.61 2.00
Germany 1.72 1.99
Slovenia 0.92 1.98
United States (2006, 2012) 1.79 1.96
Austria 1.67 1.93
Belgium 1.25 1.58
China 0.96 1.55
France 1.29 1.44
Iceland (2006, 2011) 1.55 1.33
Singapore (2006, 2012) 1.40 1.23
Australia (2006, 2011) 1.16 1.23
Netherlands 0.96 1.14
Ireland (2006, 2012) 0.80 1.14
United Kingdom 1.02 1.05
Czech Republic 0.74 1.03
Hungary 0.48 0.98
Norway 0.78 0.87
Estonia 0.50 0.83
Canada 1.11 0.82
Luxembourg 1.46 0.71
Russian Federation 0.72 0.68
Italy 0.53 0.67
Spain 0.65 0.66
Portugal 0.44 0.65
New Zealand (2007, 2011) 0.50 0.58
Turkey 0.21 0.45
Slovak Republic 0.21 0.38
Poland 0.17 0.38
South Africa (2006, 2012) 0.52 0.34
Greece 0.17 0.27
Mexico (2006, 2011) 0.18 0.17
Argentina (2006, 2012) 0.12 0.13
Chile (2007, 2012) 0.11 0.13
Romania 0.22 0.12

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, January 2015.

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Description of Figure 2-2

Business Enterprise Expenditures on R&D by Industry in Canada, 2007 and 2015 (in billions of dollars)
Country 2007 2015
All other industries 4,496 3,503
Total utilities 288 218
Finance, insurance and real estate 436 225
Motor vehicle and parts 509 253
Wood products, paper and printing** 441 280
Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing 975 441
Information and cultural industries 1,476 1,264
Wholesale trade 976 1,347
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 781 1,362
Computer systems design and related services 1,286 1,396
Aerospace products and parts manufacturing 925 1,510
Scientific research and development services 1,295 1,824
ICT manufacturing* 2,872 1,839

Source: Statistics Canada, Table 358-0024 (accessed July 16, 2015).

** Within wood products, paper and printing, STIC includes NAICS 321-323. Return to text
* Within ICT manufacturing, STIC includes NAICS 3341-3346. Return to text

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Description of Figure 2-3

ICT Investment as a Percentage of GDP, 2013
Country IT
equipment
Communications
equipment
IT +
communications
equipment
(breakdown
not available)
Computer
software
Switzerland 0.7 0.7 2.5
Czech Republic 1.4 0.4 1.9
Japan 1.3 2.1
Sweden (2012) 1.1 2.3
United States 0.5 0.6 2.0
France 0.2 0.2 2.6
Austria 0.4 0.7 1.9
Denmark 1.0 0.1 1.9
Netherlands 0.6 0.1 2.2
Estonia 0.5 1.6 0.6
Belgium 0.8 0.4 1.5
Australia 0.8 0.7 1.0
Canada 0.6 0.4 1.2
Korea 0.2 0.5 1.4
United Kingdom 0.4 0.0 1.7
Portugal (2011) 0.5 0.4 1.0
Spain (2012) 0.3 0.3 1.3
Italy 0.3 0.4 1.2
Slovenia 0.5 0.3 1.0
Iceland* 1.8
New Zealand* 1.7
Germany 0.9 0.8
Finland 0.3 0.2 1.1
Ireland 0.8 0.7
Norway (2012) 0.9 0.1 0.5
Greece 0.3 0.6 0.5
Hungary 0.6 0.9
Slovak Republic* 0.6
Israel* 0.6
Mexico* 0.3 0.0

Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard, 2015.

* Note: Data for Iceland, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand and the Slovak Republic were incomplete and only represent the asset for which data were available. Return to text

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Description of Figure 2-4

Science and Technology-Related Occupations as a Percentage of Total Employment, 2011
Country S&T occupations
(as a % of total employment), 2011
Luxembourg 56.0
Sweden 41.5
Switzerland 41.1
Denmark 40.6
Iceland 38.7
Netherlands 38.5
Norway 37.4
Germany 37.3
France 37.0
Finland 36.8
Australia (2010) 36.7
Belgium 36.5
United States 35.4
Russian Federation (2008) 33.7
Ireland 32.3
Slovenia 31.9
Austria 31.4
Czech Republic 31.1
Italy 30.6
Israel (2010) 30.4
New Zealand 30.4
Canada 30.0
Slovak Republic 28.5
Hungary 28.2
United Kingdom (2010) 28.1
Estonia 27.4
Poland 26.7
Spain 25.8
Greece 24.0
Chile (2002) 22.4
Egypt (2007) 22.1
Portugal 20.2
Korea 19.3
Argentina (2006) 17.5
Mexico (2008) 16.5
South Africa (2008) 16.2
Japan (2008) 14.9
Brazil (2007) 14.4
Turkey (2010) 12.9
Colombia (2008) 9.8
India (2009) 7.0
China (2009) 5.8
Indonesia (2008) 5.7

Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Outlook, 2012.

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Description of Figure 2-5

Government Funding of Business R&D, 2013 (as Percentage of GDP)
Country Direct Indirect
Korea 0.18 0.24
Russian Federation (2011) 0.39 0.02
France 0.11 0.26
Slovenia 0.25 0.09
Hungary 0.19 0.13
Belgium (2012) 0.10 0.20
Austria 0.15 0.12
United States (2012) 0.19 0.07
Ireland (2012) 0.07 0.16
Canada 0.03 0.18
Czech Republic 0.12 0.06
Netherlands 0.02 0.15
Iceland (2011) 0.10 0.06
United Kingdom 0.08 0.08
Japan 0.03 0.13
Australia (2011) 0.02 0.13
Sweden 0.14 0.00
Israel (2012)* 0.14
Norway 0.08 0.05
China  0.07 0.06
Portugal 0.04 0.09
Denmark 0.06 0.06
Spain (2012) 0.08 0.02
Brazil (2012) 0.06 0.03
Estonia 0.08 0.00
Germany 0.08 0.00
Turkey 0.04 0.03
Finland 0.06 0.01
New Zealand 0.06 0.00
Greece 0.02 0.04
Italy 0.05 0.00
South Africa (2012) 0.02 0.03
Poland* 0.04
Slovak Republic 0.02 0.00
Switzerland (2012) 0.02 0.00
Chile 0.01 0.01
Mexico (2011) 0.01 0.00

Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard, 2015.

* Note: Indirect support estimates are not available for Israel and Poland. Return to text

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Description of Figure 2-6

Share of Firms (percentage) that Introduced a Product and/or Process Innovation between 2010 and 2012
Country Product and/or process innovation by large firms Product and/or process innovation by SMEs
Slovenia 80.00 30.68
Germany 79.84 53.76
Portugal 79.40 40.34
Switzerland 76.86 53.17
Luxembourg 75.90 47.04
Austria 75.90 37.46
Belgium 75.59 45.26
Italy 73.67 40.83
Estonia 72.73 37.53
Finland 72.64 43.23
Czech Republic 71.69 33.63
Ireland 71.58 41.04
Spain 70.52 22.08
Australia (2012-2013) 70.39 55.40
Sweden 70.23 44.27
France 69.64 35.19
Denmark 68.17 34.08
Greece 67.04 33.66
Canada 64.60 52.70
Netherlands 58.90 44.00
Poland 55.83 14.36
Israel 55.56 22.23
Hungary 53.72 14.88
Brazil (2009-2011) 53.69 35.08
Norway 53.41 30.34
Japan (2009-2011) 49.24 26.46
Latvia 47.69 18.68
Turkey 46.41 26.35
United Kingdom 43.66 33.64
Slovak Republic 43.43 18.22
Korea (2011-2013) 41.43 16.22
Chile (2011-2012) 29.95 18.12
India (2010-2011) 28.97 17.86
Lithuania 27.19 20.40
Russian Federation (2011-2013) 20.46 4.27

Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard, 2015.

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